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HIV and AIDS

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by

Rhett Cross

on 14 April 2014

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Transcript of HIV and AIDS

HIV and AIDS
in Brazil
What is HIV?
H
-
Human
I
-
Immunodeficiency
V
-
Virus

What is AIDS?
A
-
Acquired
I
-
Immuno
D
-
Deficiency
S
-
Syndrome

How is HIV transmitted?
The transition from HIV to AIDS
AIDS IN THE WORLD
Epidemic Statistics
Before you BANG Remember!
35.3 million people with AIDS in 2012
1.6 million died in 2012
0.8% of adults aged 15–49 years worldwide are living with HIV
Sub-Saharan Africa is the most severe with nearly 1 in every 20 adults living with HIV and accounting for 71% of the people living with HIV worldwide

Good News However!!
The number of newly infected are going down the last ten years!
Since 2002 the people getting treatment for HIV has gone up 10-fold!


The relationship between Socioeconomic Status (SES) & HIV/AIDS
How does SES contribute to the contraction of HIV?
The practice of riskier health behaviors.
IV drug use
Unsafe sexual behaviors
Unstable housing,
Neuropsychiatric dysfunction
How does the contraction of HIV affect SES?
Constraining an individual's ability to work-> unable to earn income
Up to 45% of people living with HIV are unemployed
Tend to be discriminated at the work place
Children often exhibit cognitive deficits compared with their uninfected peers.
How does SES affect the treatment of HIV?
Determines access to HIV treatment.
Low-income individuals are less likely to have health insurance.
The Relationship Between SES & Health in Brazil
84% of Brazilians with the highest SES have visited a healthcare provider in the past 6 months
70% of Brazilians with the lowest SES have visited a healthcare provider in the past 6 months
60% of Brazilians with the highest SES say their doctor is very attentive to their needs.
45% of Brazilians with the lowest SES say their doctor is very attentive to their needs.
Factors Contributing to Brazil's Income Disparity
Rural urban divide
Low levels of education
Pro-rich tax system
Who Gets Treatment and what if someone cannot afford treatment through private sector?
Anyone who is legally within Brazil can receive treatment
If someone cannot afford treatment through the private sector, they can resort to the public health care system
similar to the U.S Municipal Hospital
Emergency and treatment services
How are Health Services Obtained in Brazil?
Public national health system
Private providers subsidized by the Government
Private sector care through insurance and employers
What is the highest quality of Healthcare in Brazil?
The private sector system is an overall better provider as there are shorter waits and better care.
-The more prosperous citizens use this with about 20% of Brazilians using this sector

There are a few hundred firms that offer 4 types of medical plans:
1. Private Insurance
2. Prepaid Group
3. Medical Cooperatives
4. Company Health Plans


Is Brazil doing their share of accomplishing the Millenium Goals? What are Millenium Goals?

Millennium goals as described by the UN: “The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – which range from halving extreme poverty rates to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, all by the target date of 2015 “

The Millennium goal pertaining to HIV/AIDS is goal 6A

Brazil has drastically reduced its child mortality rate and mother-child transmission of AIDS rate.
4 Types of Medical Plans
1. Private Insurance - insurance plans marketed by the private health insurance industry.

2. Prepaid Group - Fixed periodic payment plans made in advance by the family or individual

3. Medical Cooperatives - Involves independent community owned hospitals Intended to lower the cost of drugs, and quality of care

4. Company Health plans - Insurance provided through employers.
How has the Brazilian Healthcare System fared against AIDS
Brazil is considered an international example of AIDS prevention.

Campaigns directed towards groups most affected by AIDS, being Women and Gay male populations.

Brazilian Congress passed 1996 law requiring the universal provision of ARV
-ARV- Antiretroviral medication

The Brazilian Gov. has increased spending of 25 million reals to 1 billion reals between 1996-2009

Brazil Healthcare System
Ministry of Health:
Responsible for public
health services,, gov.
hospitals, and medical
services.

"The right to health for all"
Discussion Questions
1. What do you think the US should do in terms of stance in regards to developing nations?
Answer (1)
GREAT JOB! Moving on..
2. Do you think the HIV prevention education is substantial enough in Brazil? Explain why.
Answer (2)
Good Answer! You look nice too!
Brazil AIDS Facts

The first case of AIDS was recorded in Brazil in 1982.
490,000 Brazilians estimated to be living with AIDS
Before 1995 until 2011, the share of injecting drug use as the exposure category in new AIDS cases declined from 27.5% to 5% among adult males and 21.9% to 2%among adult females.
The average age of Brazilians with AIDS
18 - 39
40 - 49
50 - 59
60 and older
44.3%
35.7%
15.3%
4.7%
According to the United Nations report, Brazil's federal government spent approximately US$850 million on AIDS treatment in 2007
Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, The AIDS mortality rate has significantly declined from 9.6 annual deaths per 100,000 people in 1996, to 6.3 in 2011
Education System in Brazil
The current education system highlights education as a universal right that should be promoted and protected by the government
1996 the National Education Guidelines and Framework Law was passed
required common national basis for curriculum in primary and secondary education.
increased the length and number of teaching days.
accounted the for evaluation of courses and institutions at all education levels.
Brazil is the fourteenth leading place or origin for international students coming to the United States.
In the 2011 - 12 academic year, 9,029 Brazilian students studied abroad in the United States.
UNESCO
Provides technical support to the Ministries of Education and Health to implement the health in Brazil in themes related to preventive education on STDs, HIV infection, AIDS, teenage pregnancies and promotion of health in schools
UNESCO's Objectives:
Integrate the education and health sectors, in order to develop actions focused on promoting sexual and reproductive health education to young students.
Contribute to reducing the vulnerability level that this population segment has in relation to STDs, HIV infection, and AIDS
Non-formal preventive education is still a mark of this successful experience
These actions take place through working groups involved in drafting technical and reference material for teachers and young people.
They develop training methodology for professionals, design educational projects and curriculum for schools, and dissemination of local experiences.
Since the 1980's, Brazil has implemented HIV education and prevention campaigns.

These include nationwide condom distribution and HIV testing, as well as prevention campaigns targeting vulnerable populations such as sex workers, injecting drug users, and men who have sex with men.
3. What millenium goal addresses HIV/AIDS?
Answer (3)
6^
4. Name one factor contributing to Brazil’s income disparity
Answer(4)
Rural urban divide
Low levels of education
Pro-rich tax system

Brazil's Epic Battle
Improvement Stats
2002 Half of all ART receiving patients in world in Brazil
Since 2011 Universal Access to ART
Inject Drugs Exposure down 27.5% - 5% from 1995-2011
Blood Transfusion Transmission Down
560,000 to 490,000
Annual Deaths Down
1.7 Males to 1 Females

Free Testing

517 sites: hospitals and test centers

Got Drugs?
AZT-1991
HAART-1996
New Drug Outline – 2014

Drug Battles
Local Generic Drug Success
International Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property
Brazil VS Pharmaceutical Firms
Compulsory License
May 2007
USA: International AIDS Villain or Ultimate Protectors of Capitalism?

Other Reasons for Success
Sexual Freedom In Brazil!
ABCD? Nahh Just Wrap It!
Sex Pros
Media Promotion
Fique Sabendo-2003

Conclusion
Darby Kim, Molly, Hassan, Rhett
Full transcript