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Transcript of English Language
VCE English Language unit 1 language and Comunication
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/input_hypothesis From birth to six months . This is the stage of Crying 1. Stage The first stage of acquiring language is between the ages of birth to 4 months. During this stage an infant will make a range of different crying sounds. Cooing This stage is between 2-6months. In this stage children will make vowels like sounds such as ee , oo , uu. The Babbling Stage is separated into 3 subsections.
From 5-9 months, a child makes consonant vowel sounds like ma, da, ta.
From 8-12 months they make vowel consonant vowel sounds and vowel consonant sounds, e.g. idi aba,um,ab.
From 10-12 months they make consonant vowel consonant vowel sounds. Some use re-duplication e.g. baba, gigi, tutu and some variegated, e.g. baboo, gaba. Single Words This stage is from 9-18 months . A child will duplicate sounds to form a word. Two words This stage is 18-24months. This is the beginning of syntax, e.g. doggie gone. Telegraphic Phase They use short phrases that gradually expand in length e.g. "Bring doggie back." Sentences This stage starts at 36 months and continues throughout their life . They use short but grammatically correct sentences, e.g. "Can I have some juice?" Nature versus Nurture Nature refers to someones genetic make up. Nurture refers to your environment and your experiences in that environment. The on-going debate of Nature versus Nurture is the debate of whether either nature or nurture is more important in a child's development. Researchers believe now that maybe a combination of both. Noam Chomsky's views Noam Chomsky was a psychologist, linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, logician, historian and activist. Noam Chomsky made strong statements about how we learn language. He believed that we are all born with a language acquisition device. A language acquisition device is an inbuilt device that we use to understand and construct language. We also use it for some other abilities or skills . Nativism Nativism is the belief that we all have certain abilities that are hard wired into our brain from birth. Universal Grammar Another theory which Noam Chomsky also thought was the theory that for grammar we have inbuilt abilities universal in our brains. Critical period Is a time period ranging between birth till puberty where a child must have learnt the basic concepts of language and certain abilities. After this time if they have not learnt these things, it becomes much more difficult to learn them. In some cases they may never learn it or have the capacity to learn it . Cognitive Development Is the development that deals with how we use information about ourselves and the environment around us to make sense of our world. Jean Piaget's theorize that we go through four stages of Cognitive development. Sensorimotor stage, Pre-Operational Stage, Concrete Operational stage and Formal Operational stage. Behavioural theory . Behavioural theory is the theory of how we learn. This being that we acquire behavior through conditioning occurring when we interact with the environment.
There are two main conditionings, Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is where a child learns how certain things connect in the environment. For example, teaching a child that when you say "dinner's ready" they grab a plate out of the cupboard. Operant conditioning teaches by using rewards and punishment for behavior. For example, if a child is throwing a toy at someone and you take it away and have an expression of anger and a low voice while taking the toy away then the child learns that acting in that behavior is wrong. Input Theory. This is the theory on how children learn language from their parents. Parents speak more slowly to children. They expand a child's speech which improves their vocabulary. For example, a child says "food all gone" then parent reply with " yes it is all gone because you ate it all". They also use the same sentence to introduce new words. E.g. What is this? who that? What sound does that make? So a child recognizes the same sentence and relises there is a word they don't know so they focus on that word. Parent interact with children introducing them to sentence structures like question and answers, taking turn etc. By Abbie Guy