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Periodic Table of the Elements

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Shawnt Kazar

on 6 April 2014

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Transcript of Periodic Table of the Elements

Periodic Table of the Elements
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008
Atomic Number
Atomic Weight
3
4
2
5
10
9
8
7
6
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Li
Be
Na
Mg
K
Ca
He
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
30
29
47
79
26
74
Fe
Cu
Zn
Ag
Au
W
Lithium
Beryllium
Sodium
Magnesium
Potassium
Calcium
Helium
Carbon
Boron
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
Aluminum
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulfur
Chlorine
Argon
71
89
La
Ac
U
92
Iron
Copper
Zinc
Silver
Gold
Tungsten
Lanthanum
Uranium
Actinium
80
Hg
Mercury
27
28
Ni
Co
Nickel
Cobalt
2.1
Atom
A
B
C
D
Atom
Nucleus
Electron Cloud
"s" orbital
1A
2A
3A
4A
5A
6A
7A
8A
Groups
Periods
Group 1A or 1: Alkali Metals
A special name means special properties.
*
What properties?
Why?
Group 2A or 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
A special name means special properties.
*
The special properties of the elements in groups 1 and 2 are because of the

electronic configuration


of their "s" orbitals.
Li: 1s 2s
2
1
Be: 1s 2s
2
2
* valence electron
Metals
Nonmetals
Metalloids
Metalloids have properties that are between metals and nonmetals.
12.01
C-12, Carbon-12
C-14, Carbon-14
vs
Isotope
Different atomic mass,
but
the same atomic number
C
12
6
C
14
6
238.0
H
2
1
H
3
1
Deuterium
Tritium
Diatomic Molecule
Compound
Element
If
ANY
two or more elements are joined together, we call it a molecule.
If the two elements are the SAME, we call it a
diatomic molecule
.
If the elements are DIFFERENT, we call it a
compound
.
O
2
Oxygen Gas
Molecular Oxygen
O
3
=
Allotropes
Different forms of an element.
Group 7A or 17: Halogens
A special name means special properties.
*
What properties?
Why?
* valence electron
Group 8A or 18: Noble Gases
A special name means special properties.
*
What properties?
Why?
These have full outer (valence) orbitals.
Na
+
Ion
Cation
Positively charged ion.
Cl
-
Anion
Negatively charged ion.
One or many groups of atoms that have a charge.
MgO
Mg N
3
2
Magnesium Oxide
Magnesium Nitride
Add -ide to the end of the non-metal.
Sodium Bromide
Aluminum Oxide
Magnesium Phosphide
Anion form: Silicide
Si
4-
When two non-metals form a molecule together, the naming is different:
CO
SO = ?
N O
N O = ?
2
3
2
3
2
4
Carbon Dioxide
Dinitrogen Trioxide
PCl = ?
3
FeBr
FeBr
3
2
25
Mn
Manganese
Mn O =
2
3
Manganese (III) Oxide
Except....
Anything with hydrogen.
H S = dihydrogen sulfide
2
HCl = hydrogen chloride
or....
More exceptions:
CH
4
H O
2
NH
3
B H
2
6
KCl = ?
Group 1 and 2 metal names are simple. Other metals have new rules...
CaCl = ?
2
Lanthanum Series
Lanthanides

Actinium Series
Actinides

NaCl
H O
2
Cl
2
N
2
Transition Metals
Glucose
Full transcript