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Chapter 5: Age of Exploration

Created by: Abby, Beatriz, & Alex
by

Alex Yan

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 5: Age of Exploration

Abigail, Alex, and Beatriz Chapter 5: Abigail, Alex, and Beatriz The Age of Exploration Created by: Abby, Alex, Beatriz Humanist Thinking and How it Affected Exploration Humanists alike have always kept an open and curious mind, and many other characteristics. Explorers adopted these characteristic and were interested to explore the foreign territories. Curiosities lead to truth. People, corresponding explorers, had wanted to find truth themselves. They were not going to do that by waiting on the accomplishments of others. Expanding their boundaries meant that the explorers were able to gain awareness through their travels. Intercultural contact helped them accumulate their knowledge. Humanist thinking about human beings and their abilities gave explorers the worldview necessary to take on new challenges. #1 Explorers were motivated by the wish to expand trade with the East, discover sources of gold, and make converts to Christianity. #2 The actions and attitudes of a state or country whose objective is to increase its power and territory is called expansionism. Talents and skills such as leadership, courage, knowledge, and perseverance were key characteristics that an explorer would need to be capable of. Renaissance explorers shared shared the faith in the potential of a human beings with humanist thinkers, resulting in confidence in their dreams and abilities, to take on new challenges. Finding Motivation Through the Discovery of Gold and Converting to Christianity The demand of luxury goods, expansion of trade and manufacturing meant that exploration beyond Europe was needed. Alexandria Constantinople Venice Arab merchants purchased spices in India and the spice islands of the Far East. India and the Spice Islands The spices are the transported to eastern Mediterranean trading centres like Constantinople and Alexandria to sell to Italian merchants. The Italian merchants then brought the spices to Venice, where they are to be sold throughout Europe. Each time the spices traveled to a different location the value of that item multiplied. Soon Europeans began to wonder how they can get involved with this business. The trading economy of Renaissance Europe was dependent on the trade goods in exchange between coins. Gold and silver. Soon, gold and silver mines began to run low, and exploration was needed again. Religion was also very an important aspect in the Renaissance's society, and therefore they wanted to spread this religion. So they would often have Europeans had a very limited amount of knowledge about the uncharted lands beyond Europe, and the information that they did have, wasn't very accurate. #3 Technological advances in navigation gave explorers the means to accomplish their goals New advances in technology allowed explorations to be conducted more effectively. Instruments for Navigation Compass:
The compass was used to find the direction of a traveling ship.
It was likely that this tool was developed by in China approximately 1700 years ago. The success of explorations were dependent on the technology that they possessed. Prince Henry of Portugal funded and established a centre in Sagres where mathematicians, astronomers, sailors, and navigators from all over Europe gathered to share their knowledge. They improved many navigational instruments and maps. Astrolabe:
The astrolabe was used to locate the North Star or Sun to calculate latitude. It was developed by the ancient Greeks, improved upon by the Arab. Technological Advances in Ship Building Medieval Cogs:
Were built to carry passengers and cargo for relatively short distances at a time, and hard to maneuver.Medieval Cogs were likely to be found sailing in the same direction as the wind was blowing. Caravel:
These ships had two different types of sails; Lateen sails and traditional European square sails.It wasn’t until later on that the Portuguese improved this ship by adding the European sails. Canoes:
Were light, strong, and could be maneuvered through rapids. The First Nations people would use a combination of materials to improve the canoe.New ideas and technology allowed the people at the time to create ships that were able to handle any weather obstacles. Improvements in maps, navigational instruments, and ships were all essential in order for the explorations and expansion to happen during this time. #4 Expansionist views affected Europeans behavior in the new territories they reached. How Europeans were affected by Expansionism The Europeans were in competition with one another to establish trade routes for spices and other valuable goods. Gold and silver were needed for the expansion of many economies, so many European countries began to send explorations to gold and silver producing areas. Portugal was the first European country to establish a trading posts and cycles with Africa trading gold and other goods. The Portuguese also became involved in the slave trade in Africa. They would take the slaves to work in many different plantations established on islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Jewelery Artwork Spices The wealth and knowledge the Portuguese had brought back from explorations kept the country interested, therefore they continued to fund future expeditions. Bartholomeu Dias (Portugal), 1488 Vasco da Gama (Portugal) 1497 Expedition after expedition, the Portuguese fleets began making yearly trading trips to the Indian Ocean. The Arab thought the Portuguese as intruders and began attacking. Even though the Portuguese were at a size disadvantage, but they were able to defeat the Arab ships with cannons. While Portuguese planned to reach Asia by sailing around Africa, Christopher Columbus (Spanish) thought that a shorter route can be found by traveling to the west. Instead of finding Asia, he had ran into the Caribbean. The Spanish continued to search for a western sea route to Asia. During the year 1520, Ferdinand Magellan sailed along the coast of South America. Even though he had been killed in the Philippines, his ship continued, and he became the first to circumnavigate the world. Columbus' 1st Route Ferdinand Magellan's Route The Battle of Diu
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