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Linguistics Saussure

An introduction to Structuralism
by

Jaime Bihlmeyer

on 11 October 2015

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Transcript of Linguistics Saussure

Marx
Structuralism & Language:
Plato-inspired
thinkers like
Decartes, Spinoza, Leibniz & Kant
Innate ideas and STRUCTURES
mediate our knowledge of
the world.
So if we cultivate
an understanding of
these STRUCTURES, and avoid disparate
appearances that our senses provide,
we can deduce the structure of reality!
FROM BIRTH
"Rationalists"
Locke, Berkeley
& Hume
"Empiricists"
The mind is a blank slate
at birth and the senses provide
us the data needed to build knowledge of the world.
This is a Humanist approach
that ascribes to an individual the
ability to find truth and
reality using the 5 senses without
an inherent structuring element.
Key words: scientific method,
experience, observation, diachronic and the natural world.
Key words: language,
a priori, intuition,
synchronic (ahistorical)
and
STRUCTURE.
1600 - 1700AD
1600 - 1700
1600 - 1700
Your brain mediated
by STRUCTURE
Outside sensory data
Outside sensory data
Outside sensory data
They could be considered in some respects, the First STRUCTURALISTS
Carl Jung:
"...there exists a second psychic system of collective, universal, and impersonal nature which is identical in all individuals. This collective unconscious does not develop individually but is inherited. It consists of pre-existent forms, the archetypes, which can only become conscious secondarily and which give definite form to certain psychic contents."
What's the connection between
the Age of Reason and Modernism?

Rationalism and Science
gone WILD...
THE AGE OF
ENLIGHTENMENT!

(Rationalists like Descartes)
(Empiricists like Locke)
Modernism:
"Empirical Rationalism"

Saussure
Freud
His theory:

an innate structure
forms language. Words are arbitrary.
The difference between words is what defines the existence of words.
Dog is not Cat.
No other word is "Dog."
So dog exists as an signifier that English culture reserves for a specific 4-legged meaning.
1857-1913
Signifier:
sound image (word)
Signified:
Concept
Signifier
+
Signified=
SIGN
Tree
1818-1886
Social Scientist
who believed
that an innate
structure
determines
social reality.
Karl Marx
was a
Materialism:
Natural
Resources
MEANS OF PRODUCTION:
PROLETARIATS
Means of Distribution
1856- 1939
Psychological
Scientist:
He believed in
an innate structure
in the unconscious
that influences
consciousness.
SUPER
EGO
EGO
ID
GUILT
URGES
BEYOND
Economics
to the
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTiON
How Green Was My Valley(Ford, 1941)
the HYPERBOLE OF
meaning
OEDIPAL
COMPLEX
STRUCTURAL ELEMENT
of our Brains
for Rationalists
for Empiricists
triggers the disillusionment of Modernism
that
would lead to an era
MADE TO EXPLOIT
THE CONSCIOUS
the path to linguistics and
FERDINAND de SAUSSURE
The Era of
social, psychanalytial and
linguistic Scientists
which have become
commodities in the era of
Capitalism
commodities
important concept for
20th century Structuralists
COLLECTIVE
UNCONSCIOUS
20th Century critical theory that
works to uncover the
structures in language

that underlie all the things
that humans do, think, perceive,
and feel.
What brought us
to
Structuralism?
The Rationalists
proposed that
Let's go back
to the "Age of Reason"
That's produced

AGE OF REASON had a
COMPETING SCHOOL
OF THOUGHT: The
NO STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT
IN THE BRAIN
including
are
Theory of
Consisting of
three elements:
1.
2.
3.
One of his
fundamental
formulas is:
Also: "Age of Enlightenment"
comes from theory not observation
reasoning that
(based on historical development)
WHICH LEADS TO:
MODERNIST BACKLASH
AGAINST INSTITUTIONS!
HISTORICAL
A MAIN POLITICAL FOCUS OF MARXISM THAT AROSE FROM THE LARGE SCALE INEQUALITIES IN THE DIVISION OF LABOR IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Full transcript