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CHAPTER 8: DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM
Transcript of CHAPTER 8: DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM
DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM DO RE MI........ 1. Explain the process of colonisation and succession.
2. Identify pioneer species in an ecosystem.
3. Identify the successors in an ecosystem.
4. Identify the dominant species in an ecosystem. LEARNING OUTCOMES: Four groups of plant play important roles in the colonisation and the succession of a newly formed pond. Colonisation
succession in pond Stages of colonisation
succession in plant THINKY THINK! TIME !! THANK YOU! 8.2 Colonisation and Succession in
an ecosystem submerged
plants plant that grow and live below
the surface of water they are pioneer species in pond possess fine leaves which enable the plants to flow with the current of the water Hydrilla sp. Elodea sp. Cabomba sp. Vallisneria sp. plants that float on the surface
of water they succeed the submerged
plants after the pioneer stage multiplication of floating plants on the surface of the pond prevents less sunlight from entering the pond. this results in the death of submerged plants as they cannot photosynthesise due to the lack of sufficient sunlight also called emergent plant Nelumbium sp. Eichornia sp. can live both in land and in water these plants succeed the floating plants when the eroded soil in the pond gradually rises and causes the water level in the pond to be too shallow for the growth of floating plants Land plants are basically the
plants that grow on dry
ground after the pond dries up land plants are the successors of amphibious plants also known as terrestrial plants grass Scirpus grossus Cyperus sp. Scirpus mucronatus creepers fern herbaceous plant woody plant Succession by aquatic floating plant Climax stage Succession by amphibious plant Spark Succession
by land plant The pioneer stage 1.Photoplankton, zooplankton, and submerged plants are the first colonisers.
2.These submerged plants have long fibrous roots to penetrate the soil and absorb nutrients.
3.When the pioneer plants die and decompose, the organic matter settles to the bottom of the pond. This organic matter, together with the eroded soil from the bank of the pond, gradually settles to the pond, making it shallower and more suitable for floating plants 1. Floating plants such as Pistia sp., Eichornia sp., and Lemna sp. gradually multiply and cover the surface of the pond and prevent light from entering it.
2. This causes the submerged plants to die as they cannot carry out photosynthesis.
3. These dead plants decompose and add on to the layer of organic matter at the bottom of the pond. 1. The layer of organic matter raises the floor of the pond, making it too shallow for the floating plants to float.
2.Amphibious plants such as Scirpus sp. and Cyperus sp. succeed the floating plants.
3.The amphibious plants multiply and their rhizomes grow from the edge of the pond towards the middle, and their extensive roots penetrate deep, binding the soil together and changing the habitat.
4.When the amphibious plants die, their decomposed remains add on to the sediment.
5.The pond becomes even shallower. 1. The death and decay of the amphibious plants caused by the continued deposition of organic matter and evaporation of pond water will make the pond very shallow and eventually dry it up.
2.Finally, land plants such as grass, creepers, herbaceous and other woody plants will replace the amphibious plants and gradually form a jungle 1.The process of succession will
stop when a level of balance is
2.The tropical rainforest is a climax community.
3.The climax community takes a few hundred years to form. Phytoplankton, zooplankton and algae are often among the first
species to establish themselves in a mining pond.
As time passes, submerged and floating
plants will grow, followed by amphibious plants,
grasses, small shrubs, bushes
and eventually trees.
This is an example of
A. colonisation B. competition
C. evolution D. succession succession D Over many years a forest can be found on an initially barren piece of land left behind by a volcanic eruption. What is the correct sequence of ecological processes that have taken place?
A. Colonisation, succession, climax community B. Colonisation, climax community, succession C. Succession, colonisation, climax communiity D. Succession, climax community, colonisation Colonisation, succession, climax community A Which gives the correct sequence of plants involved in the process of succession in a disused pond?
A. Emergent plants,floating plants, land plants,
B. Floating plants, submerged plants, land plants,
C. Submerged plants, floating plants, emergent
plants, land plants
D. Land plants, emergent plants, floating plants,
submerged plants Submerged plants, floating plants, emergent plants, land plants C