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Cognitive Views of Learning

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Mary Jo Snow

on 22 October 2018

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Transcript of Cognitive Views of Learning

Working Memory


Sensory Memory
Cognitive Views of Memory
Cognitive Views of Learning
temporary storage & active processing
Sensory Memory
Cognitive Science or "the learning sciences"
Procedural Memory
Storing & Retrieving Info in Long-Term Memory
Cognitive Psychologists: assume that mental processes exist, that they can be studied scientifically & that humans are information processors
interdisciplinary study of thinking, language, & the brain
Episodic Memory
the scientific study of memory and cognition
Cognitive Views of Learning
the mental events and knowledge we use when we recognize an object, remember a name, have an idea, understand a sentence, or solve a problem
Cognition: the operation of a complex system of multiple memory components that interact rapidly & simultaneously
extending and transforming the understanding we already have
People actively choose to practice, pay attention, ignore, reflect, and make decisions as they pursue goals
Cognitive View: knowledge & strategies are learned;
changes in knowledge & strategies make changes in behavior possible
Behavioral View: new behaviors themselves are learned
Behaviorists: reinforcement strengthens responses
Cognitive Theorists: reinforcement is a source of information about what is likely to happen if behaviors are repeated or changed
No single cognitive model or theory of learning represents the entire field of cognitive psychology
Focus on individual & developmental differences in cognition
The brain continues to change throughout life, & learning impacts those changes.
initial processing of incoming stimuli
vast capacity - sensory coded
brief duration - 3 sec.
Select & organize info for further processing
the process of detecting a stimulus & assigning meaning to it
Data-driven or bottom-up processing (feature analysis)
Gestalt (pattern / configuration)
Conceptually-driven or top-down processing (context / knowledge)
Working Memory
Attention & Multitasking
sequential multitasking
simultaneous multitasking
Attention & Teaching
Domain-Specific Knowledge:
General Knowledge:
pertains to a particular task or subject
applies to many different situations; planning, solving problems, comprehending language
more than the end product of learning
it also guides new learning
Knowledge helps determine: what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, and forget
Sensory Memory
Working Memory
Central Executive
Episodic Buffer
Phonological Loop
Visuospatial Sketchpad
Implicit Memories
Knowledge Influences
Knowledge Influences
Save (learn)
Explicit Memories
Early Information Processing System
Sensory Register
Images, etc.
Short-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory
(old computer model)
Long-Term Memory
combines with knowledge from long-term memory to solve problems or comprehend info
Working Memory
based on physical representations from the world & our existing knowledge
(stored knowledge)
is selective
you pay attention to some stimuli while you ignore others
impacted by all 3 types of memory
Other factors: what else is happening at the time, your resources, & your ability to control or focus your attention
takes effort & is a limited resource
Automaticity of Skills
Using cell phone while driving
drinking while driving
increases risks of having an accident by 400%
switch back & forth from 1 task to another, but focus on 1 at a time
overlapping focus on several tasks at a time
Complex, simultaneous tasks
400% longer
up to
Paying Attention - first step in learning
Gaining & Maintaining Attention
Reach Out
Purpose of Lesson
duration: 5 to 20 sec.
Cognitive Load
amount of resources (mostly working memory) required to perform a task
Intrinsic Cognitive Load
Extraneous Cognitive Load
Germane Cognitive Load
cognitive capacity needed to deal w/ problems unrelated to the task
amount of cognitive processing required to figure out the material
deep processing of relevant information; organizing & integrating w/ what you already know
Keeping Info Activated in Working Memory
Maintenance Rehearsal
Elaborative Rehearsal
connecting info w/ what you already know
repeating info in phonological loop or refreshing info in visuospatial sketchpad
grouping info
Information may be lost from working memory through:
Without forgetting, the working memory would quickly overload & learning would cease.
Forgetting is useful!!
Processing new information gets confused with old information
If you don't continue to pay attention to info, the activation level weakens (decays) & drops so low that the info can't be reactivated
Memory Span
Memory Processing Efficiency
Speed of Processing
Developmental Changes
Increases are observed in:
-ages 4 to adolescence
-by age 10-11 years - memory is adult-like
Individual Differences
growth in working memory - correlated with reading abilities & reading comprehension (elem)
working memory - related to academic achievement, math computation, complex math word problems, scores on intelligence tests
& emergent literacy & number skills (preschool)
working memory problems - associated with reading disabilities
-implications for learning
storage - time & effort
capacity - unlimited
accessing info - time & effort
Declarative Knowledge
Procedural Knowledge
Self-Regulatory Knowledge
Recent Version of Information Processing Model
Phonological Loop
sounds, words, verbal info
Visuospatial Loop
images & spatial info
short-term storage
& active refreshing of
short-term storage
& active refreshing of
Episodic Buffer
Combines info from phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, & long-term memory to construct integrated information
Central Executive
pool of mental resources
supervises attention, plans, decides info to retrieve & allocates resources
Declarative Knowledge
knowledge that can be declared - through words & symbol systems
Procedural Knowledge
knowing how to do something - knowledge in action
Self-Regulatory Knowledge
knowing how to manage your learning
(knowing how & when to use declarative & procedural knowledge)
Long-Term Memory: Explicit & Implicit
Propositional Networks
Prototypes, Exemplars, & Theory-Based Categories
Semantic Memory
Flashbulb Memories - memories for dramatic or emotional moments in your life
Memories tied to a place & time - an episode in life
Scripts - action sequences or plans for actions stored in memory (e.g., ordering in restaurant)
Productions - specify what to do under certain conditions
activating info that is already in long-term memory through an out-of-awareness process
the way you learn info - how it is processed in working memory at the outset - strongly impacts its recall later
important - to integrate new info w/ existing knowledge
adding meaning to new info by connecting with already existing knowledge
students - "make it their own"
(put into their own words, draw a diagram, act it out, explain to a peer)
Dual Coding Theory of Memory - info coded both visually & verbally is easiest to learn
Using Mental Images - depends upon the task & the person
Visual & Verbal info - processed in different systems
Working Memory for visual & verbal - capacity is severely limited - keep info bite sized
Focus on relevant information & build connections (e.g., color-coding)
Physical Context
Emotional Context
Working Memory
Long-Term Memory
(skills, procedures)
(knowledge, concepts, schemas)
Spreading Activation
when a particular proposition or image is active (when we are thinking about it) other closely associated knowledge can be primed or triggered & activation can spread through the network
retrieval from long-term memory occurs partly through spreading activation
Forgetting Info in Long-Term Memory
Info in long-term memory MAY be available, if given the right cues
student engagement
deeper processing of information
higher levels of initial learning
frequent reviews & tests, elaborated feedback, high standards, active involvement in learning projects
Longer Retention
Meaningful information
Loci Method
-familiar place; pegs to hang memories
-letters as cues (H0MES for Great Lakes, Every Good Boy Does Fine for G clef)
Chain Mnemonics
Keyword Method
-Recode, Relate, Retrieve
Rote Memorization
(e.g., "carta" as cart filled with letters)
-part learning, distributed practice, massed practice
(memorization aids)
Developing Declarative Knowledge
- students understand & use
Developing Procedural Knowledge
*Automated Basic Skills
- 3 Stages
(prerequisite knowledge & practice w/ feedback helps)
*Domain-Specific Strategies
-consciously applied skills that organize thoughts & actions to reach a goal
-following steps or directions
-combining steps into larger units
-accomplish procedure w/ limited attention
Make sure you have students' attention
Help students focus on the important information
Help students make connections - new & previously learned info
Repetition & review
Clear & organized presentation
Focus on meaning, not memorization
Helping Students Understand & Remember
Concepts - categories used to group similar events, ideas, objects, or people
Proposition - small unit of knowledge that can be judged true or false
Prototype - best representative of its category
Exemplars - actual memories of specific examples
Schemas - personal frameworks that help us form & understand concepts
Images - representations based on structure or appearance
memory for meaning
procedural knowledge - how to do things
Superior Autobiographical Memory (Hyperthymesia)
Temporal Lobe (storage of memories)
Caudate Nucleus (habit, skill learning, 0CD)
Brains are more developed in:
Potential for understanding memory, Alzheimers?
-connects 1st item to 2nd item to 3rd item,
etc. (e.g., visual association, story, jingle)
(+7 to +8 SD's)
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