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Copy of Research Ethics
Transcript of Copy of Research Ethics
In 1974, William Summerlin, working with immunologist Robert Good at the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, reported that he could transplant tissue from genetically unrelated animals without rejection by the recipient animal. Such a finding would have been invaluable for transplant medicine. Summerlin tried to support his claims by showing white mice that had black patches on their backs. He claimed that their skin had been transplanted from unrelated donor mice. However, a laboratory technician noticed that these "transplanted patches" were actually drawn on the skin of the mice with a felt-tipped marker. Summerlin had falsified his data.
This true example is used in the CITI online program that many institutions uses to train personnel.
1) The federal definition of research misconduct includes all of the following
C) Conflict of interest
What have we learned?
Some Examples of Why Systematic Ethics are Necessary
Tuskegee, Alabama syphilis experiments
The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) regulates the ethical use of laboratory animals.
Research ethics are, according to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIH) "norms of conduct that differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable conduct"
Another Example: Henrietta Lacks
When Henrietta Lacks, a poor black woman in Southern Virginia sought medical care for cervical cancer a Johns Hopkins, doctors took a piece of her tumor without her knowledge or consent. Using this tissue, scientists were able to grow cells in culture for the first time, leading an explosion in biomedical research (and profits). The polio vaccine and many other advances could not have been reaches with cell culture technology. Henrietta's descendents still live in poverty in the deep South.
Necessity, physical or mental distress, informed consent, status of minors, anonymity, deception,
Necessity of systematic research ethics
Institutions which regulate and define ethical conduct
Resources for ethical training
Frequency with which ethical standards are violated, even in prestigious circles
This umbrella terms deal with issues of ethical treatment of experimental subjects (human and animal), data falsification, conflict of interest, and intellectual property rights.
Between 1932 and 1972, the U.S. Public Health Service studies the progression of untreated syphilis among poor African Americans. The participants were not aware of the purpose of the study; they thought they were receiving free health care from the government. They were not provided with penicillin, the standard treatment for syphilis, nor were they informed of this treatment. This infamous study led to the establishment of the Office for Human Research protections and laws requiring Institutional Review Boards.
The Internal Review Board (IRB) is the institution that reviews biomedical and behavioral research involving humans.
In 2010, Harvard University found one of their most prominent professors, evolutionary biologist Mark Hauser, guilty of 8 counts of misconduct. In 2012, the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) confirmed that Hauser fabricated data in one study, manipulated results in multiple experiments, and incorrectly described how studies were conducted. He has been banned from certain types of research and taken up writing instead.
What accounts for the majority of retracted scientific publications?
A) Honest mistakes
B) Scientific misconduct
C) Journal error
In 1974, William Summerlin reported that he could transplant tissue from genetically unrelated animals without rejection by the recipient animal. The case primarily involved which problem?
D) Conflict of interest
Informed consent requires that:
1) Subjects are adequately informed
2) The choice of each subject to enroll in voluntary
3) The subject must be competent to voice an opinion
For more quizzes and information:
All IACUCs must have at least 5 members, including a non-scientist, a vet, and a community member
Embryos and invertebrates are not covered
Intensity classification gradient for B to E
Governed by the "Three Rs": refine, reduce, replace
Scientists seek IACUC approval after receiving funding
Like IACUC, must have at least 5 members
Standard is that participants should leave in the same state that they entered
Deception must be explained in a debriefing
Parental consent required for minors, except for educational surveys
Moral obligation to tell people about possible disorders can be met by e-mailing all participants or providing resources in debriefing materials
Importance of recruitment materials
Freedom to leave the experiment at any time must be clear
Research is defined by NIH as the production of generalizable results