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Transcript of Curriculum Development
'Different kinds of programmes of teaching and instruction.' (Kelly 2009)
5. The four conceptions of curriculum
The following four 'conceptions' were identified by Pollard and Triggs (1997)
3. Models of Curriculum Development
Developed by Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) - Argued that curriculum can be developed that is not 'means end' - there is justification in knowledge itself.
Focuses on processes and procedures of learning
Empasis on learning skills - good for students not able/good at 'traditional' academic subjects and assesment
Curriculum caters for individual learning styles
Focuses on activities which are 'real to life'
The official curriculum
The hidden curriculum
The observed curriculum
The curriculum as experienced
References.. and any questions?
Also called 'Behavioural Objectives Model'
Curriculum based on what the learner needs to know
Outcomes are identified by what the learner will be able to do by a specific time period.
Assesment is more precise and set against specific outcomes
Learning is focused on facts, techniques and information
Teaching adapted to ensure outcomes are met
Favoured by government as its easier to manage
Adaptable to different learners and needs
Instills confidence in teachers as there is clear guidance
Teaching can lack depth, very brief across a wide range of subjects
Can be demotivational to learners as they do not choose or control what they are learning
Also known as 'Transmission of existing knowledge'
Focuses on intellectual development
Defined by a syllabus
Outcomes are unspecified
Open learning, where the learner follows ideas and concepts
Assessment is based on opinions and theories rather than facts.
Hirst (1974) 'There can be no curriculum without objectives.' There must be a point, a learnable outcome, even if it is vague.
Not confined to a rigid structure
Particularly useful for learners who may not be able to recall specific facts etc.
Caters for assessing how the learner explores the idea
Assesment is not standardised
Outcomes are unspecified
Does not consider 'how'
Not a standardised approach to delivering learning
Requires teachers to be autonomous and have high level of professional ability (Taylor and Richards 1985)
Not a suitable model for teaching all subject areas
Also known as 'Situational Model'
Focuses on learning in the community and wider society
Curriculum is developed to be fit for purpose
Ever changing model
Communities of practice
Malcom Skilbeck (1976)
Adaptable to what the learner requires and the environment of learning
Focuses on practice as opposed to theory
6. Structure of curriculum
Satellite (Subject based)
Based on assumption that learning is uninterrupted and progressive
Influenced by how one piece of learning leads to the next (scaffolded modules)
Can be seen as a 'production line'
Subject based curriculum
Subjects are independent of each other but all contribute to same area of learning (free standing modules)
Each section of curriculum is a topic in its own right
Usually a modular course
Sections can contribute towards overall qualification or can be stand alone, e.g NVQ or ASDAN
Usually used in vocational subjects
Based on several themes with a common goal which links to a final topic
Continually revisits topic areas in increasingly complex situations
Requires transferable skills
E.G Teaching qualifications
Jerome Bruner argues that this approach makes the transfer of learning into other contexts easier. Practice makes perfect.
'Official' planned course of study. (National Curriculum for example.)
Explicit stated programme of learning.
Clearly states the mode, sequence and progression of its delivery and course activities.
What is learnt alongside the official curriculum which is not official or designated
That which a learner learns that is not planned as part of their main syllabus (Wilson 2009)
What can be physically seen taking place in a learning environment
May be different from intended official curriculum
Variance could depend on a host of factors such as organisational, behavioural, resource based etc.
Can vary depending on the tutor (their experience, level of expertise etc.) or the learners (their motivation, ability, behaviour etc.)
Parts of the curriculum that make an actual lasting connection with the students
Arguably has the biggest educational impact
Key elements in creating curriculum are:
The 3 basic ideas which steer process of learning within a set curriculum.
Learning is planned
Learning is delivered
Learning is experienced
When defining curriculum you need to consider:
that teachers impart. (Syllabus)
of teaching. (Pedagogy)
of teaching. (Assesment)
style of delivery.
2. Key elements
3. Models of curriculum development
4. Who's driving?
5. The four conceptions of curriculum
6. The structure of a curriculum
1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? (Tyler 1949)
4. Who drives curriculum reform?
Policy makers - the government
Employers - demand for certain skills
Academics - need for varied academic programmes
Awarding bodies - need for higher standards of achievement
Technological - change in society
Others - students, parents, funding.
Reece and Walker (2007)
- Identified that there are several external and internal influences on developing curriculum
Educational system requirements
Cultural and social change
Changing nature of the subject matter being taught
Living Education (Online)
6. Assess progress
7. Add new information
10. Add new information
11. Practice skills and
plan for action
12. Apply in action
The parts of the curriculum with which the student meaningfully connects. It is this that has educational impact, in so far as it shapes learners' lives. (Pollard and Triggs 1997)
Bloom B S (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals – Handbook I: Cognitive Domain, New York, David McKay Co Inc
Duckworth, V. Wood, J. Dickinson, J. Bostock, J. (2010) Successful Teaching Practice in the Lifelong Learning Sector. Exeter: Learning Matters
Hirst, P. (1974) Knowledge and the curriculum. Oxford: Routledge and Kegan Paul
A.V Kelly (2009)The curriculum: Theory and practice. 6th edition. London: SAGE publications
Moore, A. (2012) Teaching and Learning: Pedagogy, Curriculum and culture. 2nd Edition, Routledge.
Moore, R. Ozga, J. (1991) Curriculum Policy. First Edition. Exeter: The Open University
Neary, M. (2002) Curriculum Studies in Post-Compulsory and Adult Education. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes
Pollard, A. & Triggs, P. (1997) Reflective Teaching in Secondary Education. London: Continuum
Reece, I & Walker, S. (2007) Teaching, training and learning: A practical guide. 6th edition. Business education publishers, England
Skilbeck, M 1984, School-based curriculum development. Harper & Row, London.
Stenhouse, S. (1975) An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development. Surrey: Heinemann London
Taylor, P. H. & Richards C. M. (1985), An Introduction to Curriculum Studies. NFER-Nelson, Windsor
Tummons, J. (2009) Curriculum Studies in the Lifelong Learning Sector. Third Edition. Exeter: Learning Matters.
Tyler, R. W. (1949) Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Wilson, L. (2009) Practical Teaching A Guide to PTLLS & DTTLS. Andover: Cengage Learning EMEA
National Curriculum website https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/national-curriculum (Accessed 28/01/15)
Living Education (online) Available at http://educareeducare.blogspot.co.uk (Accessed 28/01/15)
Pyramid (Integrated curriculum)
Content model - Open learning, unspecified outcomes, 'passing on' of knowledge
Product model - Learning focused on facts, techniques and information.
Process model - Focused on process and procedures of learning, bigger emphasis on learning skills as opposed to knowledge
PRAXIS model - ever changing/evolving, community learning
Can we apply these to real life learning?