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Combating complacency

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Beth Clark

on 27 November 2013

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Transcript of Combating complacency

What is Information Literacy?
Why is information literacy important for teaching staff?
"Information literacy is knowing when and why you need information, where to find it and how to evaluate, use and communicate it in an ethical manner."
Develop independent learning skills
Achieve better results
Develop critical evaluation skills
Develop technical/digital skills
Cope with information overload
Help them to make the most efficient use of their time
Prepare for information-seeking in work environment

It's not just academic...
"Information Literacy lies at the core of lifelong learning. It empowers people in all walks of life to seek, evaluate, use and create information effectively to achieve their personal, social, occupational and educational goals. It is a basic human right in a digital world and promotes social inclusion of all nations." UNESCO
Supporting your students to:
SCONUL "Seven Pillars"
There are several different models of information literacy...
Modification acknowledges different needs at different stages

Different stages represented by “lenses”- with slightly different focus on skill levels

Research lens
Open Content lens
Digital literacy lens
SCONUL Seven Pillars
Kolb’s theory of experiential learning states:

People learn from experience

Experience alters attitudes and approaches

This creates new experiences, and so on…

When else do students learn these skills?
Why Information Literacy
Teaching Sessions?
(modified by Anderson & Krathwhol , 2001)
Moving up the pyramid as you develop critical thinking ability

About understanding objectives set- translating into a common language

Criticised as learning is not a linear exercise

Similarity to the SCONUL Pillar Model - all based on knowledge/information capture and use

So, if there is no effort to introduce students to these skills, where do they get them from?
Bloom’s taxonomy
This model proposes guidance to help bridge gap between current knowledge and where need to be

Support gradually withdrawn as the student develops their ability

Vygotsky, L. (1962)
Information skills are increasingly desirable to employers

“Developing employability skills should be a core part of a student’s university experience”.

Wales Library services have mapped the SCONUL seven pillars to the CBI Employability Framework: http://librarywales.org/uploads/media/Information_Literacy_Framework_Wales.pdf
Does Employability matter?
"The Google Effect"
Significant age-related differences in article discovery methods (CIBER 2008)
What is the "Google Generation"?
Examined impact of blending conventional IL instruction with online social network learning
Incorporated discussion, reflection and peer-to-peer assessment
Results show the complexity of the information behaviours associated with IL including the cognitive, behavioural, cognitive and affective elements.
Insight given into an IL intervention that fosters the capability to interact critically and reflectively with information.
Interventions took a blended approach and combined face-to-face and OSNL proved the most successful.
In these students cognitive and affective states were markedly improved
Blended learning
Library Impact Data Project,
E-Resource use
JISC funded project. Lead by University of Huddersfield
Aimed to prove a statistically significant correlation between library usage and student attainment.
Used large volumes of data from 8 UK institutions
Project proved that there is a statistically significant correlation across a number of universities between some library activity data and student attainment in particular book loans and e-resources use.
Project Phase II - Jan-July 2012
"Achieve better results": Library Impact Data Project
Annotated Reading Lists
& Information Literacy
What is Digital Literacy?
"the ability to use information and communication technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information requiring both cognitive and technical skills."
OITP Taskforce definition (2012) http://www.districtdispatch.org/2012/04/defining-digital-literacy/
Chartered Institute of Information Professionals (CILIP), 2011 http://www.cilip.org.uk/get-involved/advocacy/information-literacy/pages/skills.aspx
More information http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy/seven_pillars.html
Vitae - Researcher Development Framework
Essential skills for researchers
Information literacy lens now available
Embedding Information Literacy in your teaching
What makes an academic journal article
different from an article in a publication
like History Today or New Scientist?
Using reading lists as a starting point, ask students to
identify the key types of information that
are important in their discipline discuss
those that they are familiar with and those that they
have not used before
Compare writing style, structure, and use
of evidence across a range of papers on
the same topic students vote for best
paper and discuss why it met their criteria
Practical examples from Secker, J & Coonan, E (2011). A New Curriculum for Information Literacy. Arcadia Project, Cambridge University Library http://arcadiaproject.lib.cam.ac.uk/docs/ANCIL_final.pdf
Students explore a number of sources
for instance real and spoof websites (e.g.
http://www.dhmo.org/) and consider
how they identify trustworthy sources
Students locate a book, a journal article and a website not on their reading list and consider in pairs the relative value of what they have
found to their assignment
Choose a noteworthy author in the
discipline and evaluate his/her impact
through citations. Does this author qualify
as an expert? Justify.
Distinguish and discuss how you might use
source material (to check facts, to grasp
background information, to support your
argument, to undermine someone else’s
argument). Look at a sample text and categorise the
reasons why they have used source
Discuss the differences between academic finding aids and freely available search engines (e.g. will Google tell you what books are in the library?)
list the different types of information you need to find out, and match them up with the various aids which fits your need best?
Give students some raw data and ask them to identify what subject disciplines might use it, and how. Would it be useful
for your own subject?
Discuss the relative value of using social
media (e.g. blogs/Facebook/Twitter) as a
source of information
Choose a prominent networked scholar and explore his/her academic research, popular profile, and use of social media
Compare a subject entry in Wikipedia with an entry in a noncurrent encyclopedia and discuss their relative value
The SCONUL Seven Pillars of
Information Literacy
Core Model
For Higher Education, April 2011

Beacons of the Information Society: the Alexandria Proclamation on Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning. Adopted in Alexandria, Egypt at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina on 9 November 2005 http://bit.ly/cJnysw
Tara Brabazon (2006). The Google Effect: Googling, Blogging, Wikis and the Flattening of Expertise. Libri, 2006, vol. 56, pp. 157–167 http://librijournal.org/pdf/2006-3pp157-167.pdf
See also Dr Stephen Thornton (2009). Lessons from America: teaching politics with the Google generation. ELiSS, Vol 1 Issue 3, April 2009. http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/subjects/csap/eliss/1-3-Thornton.pdf
Articles & conference papers online: http://library.hud.ac.uk/blogs/projects/lidp/articles-and-conference-papers/
Walton, G. and Hepworth M. (2011). A longitudinal study of changes in learners' cognitive states during and following an information literacy teaching intervention. Journal of Documentation 63 (3), 449-479
Good practice at SOAS
Some good practice at other institutions

The informed researcher
Library/Archives staff can advise on IL and support or lead sessions for your students
Make good use of colleagues and expertise in SOAS
Use freely available online materials e.g. JORUM http://www.jorum.ac.uk/
Adopt good practice from other universities see:
Secker & Coonan (2012). A New Curriculum for Information Literacy http://arcadiaproject.lib.cam.ac.uk/docs/ANCIL_final.pdf
Beetham, H et al (2009). Thriving in the 21st century: Learning Literacies in the Digital Age (LLiDA project) http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/projects/llidareportjune2009.pdf
Law undergraduate 1st year training - two lectures and two tutorials, timetabled into the legal skills course
Law MA - two lectures followed by practical exercises with feedback from librarian
LLM - two hour lecture on electronic law sources followed up by workshops for smaller groups (search by topic)
Pre-sessional MA students in Economics - two 1-hour seminars at the beginning of term (brief intro to the Library and a series of exercises focused on using e-resources). Group work & immediate feedback.
CISD - 1-hour seminars at the beginning of term (intro to Library and e-resources) & exercises & activities. Main focus on evaluation of sources, using practical examples and group discussion & feedback to the class.
MPhil Anthropology (MPhil Research Training Seminar)

"A really big factor in this [success of the session] was the engagement of the group's tutor. Throughout he questioned both me and the group, this fostered a very dynamic seminar which I feel made the students true participants in the session." Library staff member
Travelling Africa: Writing the Cape to Cairo
Curating Africa: African Film and Video in the Age of Festivals
Presenting World Music on Radio http://www.soas.ac.uk/news/newsitem52297.html
Development Communication (new Development Studies course)
Innovative academic teaching/assessment
Newcastle University Information Literacy toolkit to support staff
Chivers, Barbara. Developing a module on Information Literacy. HEA LIMES Project
Open University Information Literacy toolkit
Open University SAFARI
LSE Digital and Information Literacy
JISC SLiDA case studies. How can the development of digital literacies be embedded into the curriculum?
Could you consider...
Using the SOAS Library Archives, Manuscripts and Special Collections in your teaching?
Changing your assessment method? What about asking students to produce a podcast or create a blog entry
Using social media to communicate with students or conduct research?
Using your reading list to encourage critical evaluation of readings?
Not using a reading list at all??
Asking students to evaluate web-sites?
Including assessment of information literacy skills in your course e.g. sources used and why?
Tomassini, J (12 Nov. 2012). Can the Digital Generation Do Anything Right? Education Week [blog post]
Including information literacy learning outcomes in new course proposals?
Using new technologies to support your teaching?
Creating online tutorials?
Using sound or video sources?
Using data sources?
Combating Complacency in the "Google Generation": information literacy, learning and life beyond Wikipedia
Academic Development Workshop
Victoria Bird - Subject Librarian for Economics, Politics, Finance & Management Studies
Beth Clark - Head of Electronic Services (Deputy Head Teaching & Research Support)

How does this affect our students?
Using Wikipedia?
What characteristics do you think a member of the Google generation might possess?
How might these characteristics impact on university learning?
So is it ever ok to use Wikipedia for academic research?
What can we do at SOAS?
There are lots of good ideas already out there...
“I get at least one e-mail a week from some college student who says `Please help me. I got an F on my paper because I quoted Wikipedia.’ And I always write back and I say, `For God’s sake, you’re in college, why are you quoting an encyclopedia?’"
Wikipedia co-founder, Jimmy Wales (2006)
Let's look a little closer...
Opinion is divided...
Information in Wikipedia is just as accurate as Encyclopedia Britannica and other reference sources?
A "Learning black market"?
If students are using it anyway could it be used for teaching?
Some people are trying...
See articles by Giles, Meier & Brown
But you still need to be careful!
Chandler & Gregory (2010). Sleeping with the Enemy: Wikipedia in the College Classroom.
Does the Google generation exist?
Nicholas, D. et al. (2008). Information Behaviour of the Researcher of the Future. A CIBER Briefing Paper. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/resourcediscovery/googlegen.aspx
Some interesting research has been completed by the CIBER project (UCL)...
All well in theory...
Now for the practice...
Construct a lesson plan incorporating some aspect of IL development for your students, which must:

Be achievable within time of lecture slot
Be interesting! (e.g. how will you engage students)
Account for different ability levels
Takes account of learning theory (e.g. Kolb's learning cycle)
Provide some scope for discussing issues with students
Is affordable (i.e. free!)

The idea of this exercise is so that you have something to take with you that you can implement.

Then we'll discuss your idea
Wheel of pedagogy
Indiana University, Center for Innovative Teaching & Learning. Teaching with Wikipedia.
White, D. et al. 2012. Digital Visitors and Residents: Interim Report. JISC, University of Oxford, OCLC, University of North Carolina. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/projects/visitorsandresidentsinterim%20report.pdf
Theories of teaching -
and learning
Giroux: Pedagogy provides the skills and knowledge necessary for students to be CRITICAL, rather than merely good, citizens

IL or DL = Identifying lack of information and the ability to locate and critique information
CBI (2009) Future Fit report: http://www.cbi.org.uk/media/1121435/cbi_uuk_future_fit.pdf
Maybe: at least to students
Kolb, 1984
Learning how to deal with information
Does there have to be a conflict?
Students who have good critical thinking skills will be good employees- in whatever field they choose

Good critical thinking skills are essential for scholars to succeed in an academic environment

They are also very handy for people to be fully engaged, citizens

Is one use more valid than the other? Are they mutually exclusive or more complimentary in our current social framework?
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