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Deciduous Forest

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Ben Gondreau

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Deciduous Forest

Decomposer Physical Characteristics Secondary Consumer EIR Average Yearly Temperature Deciduous Forest Secondary Consumers consist of small animals like owls, raccoons, and coyotes. Producer Environmental Impact Report
, Food Web, & Energy Pyramid by Ben Gondreau, Matt Streit,
& Jozie Ostermann Habitat: live anywhere in the forest. Primary Consumer Herbivores are primary consumer, that is they eat the producers. In a typical deciduous forest of the Northern Hemisphere, they include rodents, like mice and voles, hoofed mammals, like deer and moose, lagomorphs, like rabbits, and a host of seed- and nut-eating birds. Primary Consumer’s nutrition requirements are Producers. Producers lay at the bottom of every food chain. In a deciduous forest, producers include ferns, berry bushes, fruit trees and fungi on rotting logs. The seeds, fruit, flowers and leaves from these producers sustain insects and small, herbivorous mammals. Since they support the rest of the deciduous forest biome, producers are the most numerous members of the food chain. The changing seasons cause animal habitats in the deciduous forest to change during the course of the year. Since the trees are bare during the winter months, animals and birds whose habitat is primarily in the foliage must find alternative places to seek shelter. Most species of birds migrate south in the fall when the temperatures begin to drop.

During the winter when the ground is frozen or covered with snow, many species hibernate

When the trees begin to bloom in the spring and the insects begin to increase in number, the animals and birds return. Aside from the coldest winter months when the trees are bare, animal habitats in the deciduous forest provide abundant food and shelter to countless birds and other species during the spring, summer and fall. sensitivity Nutrition food web position nutritional requirements The attractiveness of Primary consumers depend on if it’s a rodent or a hoofed mammal. A lot of people hate rodents, like mice and voles. They carry diseases, and aren’t very appealing. They aren’t very useful for us humans either. Hoofed mammals like deer, moose people don’t mind because they don’t affect you, and people think they are beautiful. The usefulness would depend on what you like and what you don’t. If you like to go hunting deer would be very useful to you. If you don’t go hunting, there would be no usefulness of the deer to you. usefulness/attractiveness Energy pyramid The primary consumers in this system include insects, birds, rodents and deer. Food Web There are many different kinds of insects, including caterpillars that eat the leaves and later turn into butterflies or moths. Rodents such as squirrels, wood mice, and ground squirrels eat plants and their seeds. Deer browse on the shrubs, grasses, and the leaves on the lower limbs of trees. Birds eat seeds and berries, and many eat insects as well. Average Yearly Precipitation A couple of predator-prey relationships are that wolves are predators to deer while owls are predators to mice and small rodents. there habitat would be in tree's and plants their habitat would be mostly be inside of tree's their habitat would be anything on the ground that's livable for them. Their habitat would be everywhere inside of the forest. their habitat would be in trees. these primary consumers reproduce sexual Deer would reproduce sexually. Birds reproduce sexually some insects reproduce sexually. asexual reproducer sexual reproducer symbiotic relationships The basic decomposer's would be fungi, and worms. FUNGI reproduce asexually. By breaking down dead organic material, they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. In addition, most vascular plants could not grow without the symbiotic fungi, or mycorrhizae, that inhabit their roots and supply essential nutrients. Other fungi provide numerous drugs (such as penicillin and other antibiotics), foods like mushrooms, truffles and morels, and the bubbles in bread, champagne, and beer. Fungi also cause a number of plant and animal diseases: in humans, ringworm, athlete's foot, and several more serious diseases are caused by fungi. Because fungi are more chemically and genetically similar to animals than other organisms, this makes fungal diseases very difficult to treat. Plant diseases caused by fungi include rusts, smuts, and leaf, root, and stem rots, and may cause severe damage to crops. However, a number of fungi, in particular the yeasts, are important "model organisms" for studying problems in genetics and molecular biology. WORMS reproduce asexual & sexual found anywhere where the soil is moist. SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS *ticks feed on deer (parasitism) *bees feed on hector and spread pollen to other flowers (mutualism) *deer get chiggers and carry them to other locations where they can grow and spread (commensalism) *Deciduous forests can be found in the eastern half of North America, and the middle of Europe. *The average annual temperature in a deciduous forest is 50° F. The average rainfall is 30 to 60 inches a year.
*The deciduous forest has four distinct seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In the autumn the leaves change color. During the winter months the trees lose their leaves. Earthworms (also called nightcrawlers) are very important animals that aerate the soil with their burrowing action and enrich the soil with their waste products (called castings). Good soil can have as many as as 1,000,000 (a million) worms per acre *usefullness
- improve water filtration rates and absorption rates helping the soil to drain better. Less runoff equals less watering and less erosion -camouflage in the soil. biotic & abiotic elements
rainfall white birch oak horse-chestnut The Tawny Owl inhabits much of the
deciduous forest regions throughout
western Europe, eastern Asia and North
America. Like most owls, they are nocturnal, and their diet consists of small birds, mice, rabbits, snakes, and fish. The Tawny Owl is the most commonly seen/heard owl on the planet. The Tawny Owl breeds sexually, and lays between 1-6 eggs, which take 28-29 days to incubate. This owl has little to no effect on humans. The Tawny Owl has a predator prey relationship with mice. The raccoon is one of the worlds most omnivorous animals. It's diet includes fruits, nuts, bird eggs, insects, small rodents and reptiles. The raccoon is also nocturnal, and has excellent night vision. They can climb trees to avoid predators, and also to scavenge for food. Raccoons also nest in trees, which makes deciduous forests a perfect habitat. The raccoon mates sexually, in between the months of January and June. They can have from 2-5 kits each time they give birth. The raccoons are very abundant throughout North America, and valued by hunters and trappers for their fur. The coyote can live almost anywhere, but one of its favorite habitat is the deciduous forest. Like wolves, coyotes travel in packs of closely-related family and offspring. The coyote hunts small animals like rabbits, mice, reptiles, insects, and also eats fruit. They reproduce sexually, and can have about 2-12 puppies. The coyote has a large population in some regions, but is also protected in others. People tend to hate coyotes because they have been known to kill pets. Coyotes can be hunted for their fur, or just for sport in many places. Coyotes are also considered an invasive specie, because they will invade a region, kill off the smaller animals, and the habitat will soon be unbalanced, causing the remaining animals to move away. Bears and Eagles are Tertiary Consumers, and are at the top of the food pyramid. These animals rely on hunting larger animals and have to hunt over a very large area. Deciduous forests have range of many temperatures and precipitation levels. The soil freezes in late Autumn, and thaws out in early Spring, causing the soil to be wet. Throughout the summer, when the ground becomes wet it usually is dried up quickly because of the many trees needing water, so the ground will be somewhat dry, and not very grassy. Because of the thickness of trees, there may be little or no vegetation on the ground. The location of the deciduous forest is determined by annual temperature and moisture patterns and existence of fire. In Minnesota, the deciduous forest biome runs in a thick band from the northwestern corner of the state, west of Warroad, to the southeastern corner, roughly east of Albert Lea. LOCATION:
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