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8A Astronomy John Kim
Transcript of 8A Astronomy John Kim
(H-R Diagram) Ptolemy Greek Astronomer Made the "Ptomlemy Theory"
a. The theory that the universe is Earth Centered. Found Unknown Object: The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Copernicus 1534 a Polish astronomer, built theory that is a sun centered universe Was not widely believed but when it was accepted it created the Copernicus Revolution Tycho Brahe An astronomer who used several tools to make the most detailed data so far He thought of the Earth centered theory, but different from Ptolemy Thought that the Eart was in center and sun is revolving around Earth, but other planets revolving around sun Johannes Kepler An apprentice of Brahe
Did not agree to his theory, but used his data
In 1609: Introduced proved that all planets revolve around the Sun
Also contributed the 3 laws of Planetary motion Galileo By 1609, he was one of first to use the telescope to observe the sky
Also proved many things about our planets REALLY EARLY EARLY Late 1500's to Early 1600's Early 1900's till today Edwin Hubble Disproved that the Milky Way contained everything and found out galaxies further than the Milky Way Albert Einstein Discovered nuclear fusion and elaborated on how sun gets energy from nuclear fusion Our Solar System Struggles, hardships, joy, and accomplishments of Hubble Solar Nebula Sun Planets Earth Cloud of gas and dust that formed our solar system One of our primary resources of life, the sun was formed during the collapse of the solar nebula. The center became extremely dense and hot and hydrogen atoms turned into helium atoms 10 million years ago, the solar nebula collapsed, creating a dense center Consequently, the nebula started forming into a disk shape During the collapse of the nebula, many dust particles were revolving around (when the nebula became a disk) Many of these particles collided with each other and the more they collided the bigger they got Later on these became Planetismals or small planets. The planetismals that were far away from the center were cooler and had a strong gravatational force enough to collect nebula gases and became the gas planets Planets closer to the center were hot and could not support gases thus they were rocky and barren, or even volcanic Nuclear fusion is the reason why our sun has been around for so long. Many theories were once thought of (shrinking or burning), but neither of those ad enough energy to go for more than 4.6 billion years The equation for such an inportant discovery? We all know this one: E=MC2 (squared) THE UNIVERSE IS CONSTANTLY EXPANDING!.....
FOREVER Sun has 6 layers: (Keep in mind that the surface flows is an extra) BUT this aint all.... This is a sunspOt A sun spot is a coller part of the sun that sometimes affect climate (about every 11 years or so) Thats a solar fLare An eruption in the sun that gives off magnetic waves
Today, scientists wants to predict future flares After many years, the sun was born as well our planets Seconds 14-39, you will see the solar nebula collapsing and starting to make form of our solar system
Please take note that it does not have the "best graphic" Creation of our sun in a nutshell......this should explain about 99% of this topic Image of planetismals forming Earth, our planet is the third planet away from the Sun Even though it is mostly made of rock, the surface is covered with water (75%) Its creation is formed by planetismals and has 3 layers of rock thay were separated since these layers have different density The Crust is the most outer layer The Mantle is the second layer The final is the solid iron core....IT BURNS! Our life on Earth was not possible without these 2 major things: our atmosphere and Water How water was created in a nutshell... Really, it includes everything The atmosphere at first was full of carbon dioxide until that is water
was made. Plants made created their own food by using photosynthesis
It converted carbon dioxide to food for the plants then it would let out oxygen Still dont get it? Here is a diagram: Plant Carbondioxide Oxygen Breath in.... Breath out You better get this or I am gonna wack you silly The Final Credits who made astrology possible Planetary Motion Rotation refers to a planet spinning on its axis Orbit refers to the path that a planet follows as it travels around the sun Revolution refers to a single trip a planet makes around the sun. A period of revolution is the amount of time it takes a planet to orbit around the sun Now there was this one guy called Kepler (dont remember him?) And he made 3 laws of Planetary motion... Me! Kepler’s First Law of Motion
Planets move around the sun in an elongated circle called an ellipse. Kepler’s Second Law of Motion Planets move faster when they are close to the sun, and slower when they are farther away Kepler’s Third Law of Motion Planets that are farther away from the sun take a longer time to orbit The complicated path the Earth is around in... Even though was a genius, he did not fully understand his laws himself until Newton came along..... Isaac discovered gravity, a force that pulls objects together he also discovered inertia: the ability for an object to continuously move until something else acts on it Isaac Newton He contributed to the theory of gravity, as he was the one to discover it as wel las the theory of inertia The Place where we live....realatively....I guess Stars Burn baby burn.... AND EVER AND EVER... How we Identify each and every one of em.... The Color: Red is cool, but Blue is hot... The inner core is hot, but the outer layer is cooler... Scientists uses a spectograph- a graph that shows color- to identify a star since each spectrum given of a star is different Another way is to use the absorption spectrum Since suns abosrbs color, not emit them, and all elements have a special color code, scientists can figure out the star's composition jut by looking at the codes To measure from a temprature: OBAFJKM hottest coldest... To measure from a "bright perspective..." first scientists used smallest numbers to represent brightest stars, but now, it goes to the negatives Also see: Absolute magnitude and Apparent Magnetitude The acutal brightness of the star The brightness of a star from Earth OK, so now we know how to classify them... but how to measure the distance? Using light-years and parallaxes of course! The distance and time it takes for light to travel 1 year Star's apparent postition Sometimes stars seem to move, but it's because the Earth is moving....also the stars are acutally moving, but it's so insignificant, you cant see it.. Life Cycle of Stars Stars start as a ball of dust that gets denser and hooter and turns it into a sphere
then energy is created through Nuclear fusion As getting older, the star loses material, but slowly, or in one full blast in the end, the star dies, return to space, and turn into other material to be part of a new star 3 types of stars; Main Sequence stars, Giants (super), and White dwarves The longest life and the 2nd stage of
a star's life After the main sequence, the star cools off and expand after losing all hydrogen in the star The last cycle of its life, the star is shrunk and is a small white star, can shine for billions of years; Hydrogen atoms to helium H-R diagram: studying stars Hertzberg, an astronomer and another astronomer called Russell meet and share info aobut stars and creates the H-R Diagram that compares temperature with absolute magnitude Massive stars that uses much hydrogen until it dies...
the Huge explosion? SUPER NOVA If a star collapses, the star can create a dense core thats 2 times hooter and bigger than the sun- the energy is intense enough to make neutron atoms
When spiining, the star can give off pulsars, X-RAYS that are emitting from the stars If a dense star collapses and somehow the gravity overcomes the huge star by 3 times its own force, it becomes a black hole.. an object so dense and that has great gravity that no light cant escape Black Holes The Whole Cylce of a star....watch it live and die THE UNIVERSE The main reason why
there are so many religions The Origin of the Universe AKA; the exact moment when God said "Let there be light" The big theory of how the Universe was created was because of the "BIG BANG" This happend 13.7 billion years ago Because of the big bang, radiation is everywhere and this is called "background radiation" Curiously enough, the Universe has a pattern... Galaxies make up the Universe Star clusters make up the Galaxy and so on... That is until there is enough matter to do the opposite...(shrink) but scientists think that the Universe will constantly expand The Brief History of the Universe lets see how it all started Galaxies The stuff that the Universe is made of... There are many galaxies in the universe and there are about 3 types: Spiral, Elliptical, and Irregular galaxies Spiral looking galaxies with spiral arms and bulge at the center Looks like blob of stars, and 30% of galaxies are this type Has no real shape or value, irregular shape Contains nebulas Greek/Latin for cloud Clouds of dust and gas Star Clusters Globular Clusters Open Clusters Group of stars that look like a ball A tight group of stars that is usually located on the spiral arm of a spiral galaxy Quasars The most powerful energy source in the universe Telescopes The Invention that will see all.... Optical Telescopes The most common telescope Refracting telescopes: Telescopes that use lens to gather and focus light are refracting telescopes 2 disadvantages a. Lenses focus different colors of light slightly different distances so not completely perfectly focused
b. The size of the refracting telescope is also limited by the size of lens; Too large, the lens sags under its own weight Reflecting telescopes: A telescope that uses a curved mirror to gather and focus light is called a reflecting telescopes 2 advantages One advantage is that the mirror can be large and allows more light Another is that light cannot enter the glass
Many other telescopes- big large, etc.. were made for other purposes Space Radiation Topography Reknowned space telescope Launched in the 1990 and is famous for many contributions to the galaxies and mnay new discoveries about it One such discovery is the frightning, but amazing discovery of a dark ENERGY, not matter. The energy is said to make the expansion of the universe faster or even rip atoms apart... Many pictures like this have been taken by the Hubble Chapters 14-16
John Kim The End BIBLIOGRAPHY Link: http://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=0AUpWC0j53gETZG1ubXNkZl84Zng3MzNkM2c&hl=en THE END!!!!