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Integrating Research

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Karen McCurley-Hardesty

on 13 October 2016

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Transcript of Integrating Research

Finally,
Interpret
Summary
Integrating Quotations
Summarize when you want to record the gist of an author's idea without background or supporting evidence.
Signal Phrases
Editing Quotations: Brackets
Words Added
"The tabloids [of England] are a journalistic case study in bad reporting,"

Claims Lyman
(52).
Verb Form Changed
A bad reporter, Lyman implies, is one who

"[fails] to separate opinions from facts"

(52).
Capitalization Changed
"[T]o separate opinions from facts"

is the work of a good reporter

(Lyman 52).
Noun Supplied for Pronoun
The reliability of a news organization

"depends on [reporters'] trustworthiness,"

says Lyman
(52).
Signal Phrases Continued
Precedes
Lyman insists that

"a good reporter does not fail to separate opinions from facts"

(52).
Interrupts
"However,"

Lyman insists,

"a good reporter does not fail to separate opinions from facts"

(52).
Follows
"[A] good reporter does not fail to separate opinions from facts,"

Lyman insists
(52).
Editing Quotations: Ellipses
Omission of the middle of a sentence
Wilson writes,

"Natural ecosystems...maintain the world exactly as we would wish it to be maintained"

(27).
Omission of the end of a sentence
Wilson writes,
"Earth is our home..."

(27).
Omission of parts of two or more sentences
Wilson writes,

"At the heart of the environmentalist world view is the conviction that human physical and spiritual health depends on sustaining the planet...where humanity and its ancestors existed for all the millions of years of their evolution"
(27).
Omission of one or more sentences
As Wilson puts it,

"At the heart of the environmentalist world view is the conviction that human physical and spiritual health depends on sustaining the planet in a relatively unaltered state....When we debase the global environment and extinguish the variety of life, we are dismantling a support system that is too complex to understand, let alone replace, in the foreseeable future"
(27).
Omission from the middle of a sentence through the end of another sentence
According to Wilson,

"Earth is our home....When we debase the global environment and extinguish the variety of life, we are dismantling a support system that is too complex to understand, let alone replace, in the foreseeable future"
(27).
Paraphrase
Paraphrase when you want to present or examine an author's line of reasoning but you don't feel the original words merit direct quotation.
Direct Quotation
Quote extensively when you are analyzing primary sources.
Quote selectively when you are drawing on secondary sources:
language is vivid, bold, or inventive
cannot be paraphrased without distortion or loss of meaning
words themselves are at issue in interpretation
represents and emphasizes a body of opinion or the view of an important expert
emphatically reinforces your own ideas
an illustration such as a diagram, graph, or table
1. Source author's name
2. Verb that indicates the source of the author's attitude or approach to what he or she says
Author is
Neutral
comments
describes
explains
illustrates
notes
observes
points out
records
relates
reports
says
sees
thinks
writes
Author infers
or Suggests
analyzes
asks
assesses
concludes
considers
demonstrates
finds
predicts
proposes
reveals
shows
speculates
suggests
supposes
Author
Argues
claims
contends
defends
holds
insists
maintains
Author
Agrees
admits
agrees
concedes
concurs
grants
Author is
uneasy or
disparaging
belittles
bemoans
complains
condemns
deplores
deprecates
derides
disagrees
laments
warns
Author Named
Harold Lyman grants that
"news reporters, like everyone else, form impressions of what they see and hear."

But, Lyman insists,
"a good reporter does not fail to separate opinions from facts"
(52).
Title Given
Harold Lyman, in his book
The Conscience of the Journalist
, grants that
"news reporters, like everyone else, form impressions of what they see and hear."

But, Lyman insists,

"a good reporter does not fail to separate opinions from facts"
(52).
Credentials Given
Harold Lyman, a newspaper editor for more than forty years, grants that

"news reporters, like everyone else, form impressions of what they see and hear."

But, Lyman insists,

"a good reporter does not fail to separate opinions from facts"

(52).
Note that the period goes
after
the citation and that since the author is given in the signal phrase, the author is not needed in the in-text citation. If the author is not mentioned in a signal phrase, then the author must be included in the citation.
Don't just dump the information from sources:
interpret it!
For every citation you include, you should also include a few sentences explaining how the evidence furthers your argument!
Information from Aaron, Jane E. The Little Brown Handbook, Brief Version. 4th Ed. Boston: Pearson, 2011.
These verbs can be found on page 421 in your
LB Brief.
You should mark this page and come back to it every time you work on a paper.
Integrating Sources without Signal Phrases
While signal phrases can be a useful tool, using too many can make the paper sound repetitive. It can be useful to integrate a quotation without a signal phrase because it can help with the repetitive issue, and you can analyze the quotation (or put it in context) in one sentence. Here are some samples:

While it is important
"to separate opinions from facts"

in the news, too many cable news stations do not do this

(Lyman 52).
While it is true that

"news reporters, like everyone else, form impressions of what they see and hear[,]...a good reporter does not fail to separate opinions from facts"
(Lyman 52).
Again, note that the period goes
after
the citation. Also, since the author is not noted in a signal phrase, his name must be included in the citation.
Note: Signal phrases
must
be used with paraphrases and summaries. While direct quotations must be integrated, a signal phrase is optional.
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