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Transcript of COPD
• Lining of the airways thicken
• Mucus forms in the airways, making it hard to breath Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema • Walls between air sacs become damaged
• Alveoli lose shape and become may become enlarged Anatomy Air sacs lose elasticity
Walls between air sacs become damaged
Airways become thick and inflamed
Mucus clogs airways Tests Spirometry best test for lung function Fill lungs with air and blow
out forcibly, noninvasive Other Tests Using a stethoscope to listen to the lungs
X-rays and CT scans can be helpful
Blood test (called arterial blood gas) to measure the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood Causes Persons lacking the protein alpha-1 antitrypsin may develop emphysema.
Exposure to certain gases or fumes
Exposure to a fire without proper ventilation Leading Cause Smoking or exposure to second hand smoking Also: Symptoms •Cough, may contain mucus
•Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
•Trouble catching one's breath
•Wheezing Jim Smith Anthropometric Information Height - 5' 11"
Weight - 230 lbs.
BMI - 32 Abdominal Obesity - No recent weight gain Socio-economic & family situation single
drinks 5-6 drinks per night 4-5 days per week
smokes daily (1-2 packs per week)
no exercise regimen, hunts & hikes sporadically
eats little to no homemade foods, mainly fast food or processed foods Family History Father died of lung cancer at age 65
Brother with diagnosed COPD
Mother with emphysema and asthma Intervention high calorie
high fat Diet Modification Target goal: lower RQ (Respiratory Quotient) frequent meals
adequate fluids Medications & Treatments Surgery: Bullectomy & Lung Volume Reduction Surgery, Lung Transplant Medications: Bronchodilators, Inhaled steroids, Antibiotics Therapy: Oxygen Therapy, Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program References What Next? Prognosis Although COPD is not curable, treatment of symptoms can reduce overall effects of the disease
Today, many people with COPD can have healthy, productive lives Hoogendoorn M, Feenstra TL, Hoogenveen RT, Rutten-van MÃ¶lken MP. Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD. Thorax. 2010;65(8):711-718.
Agarwal R, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, Jindal SK. Inhaled corticosteroids vs placebo for preventing COPD exacerbations: a systematic review and metaregression of randomized controlled trials. Chest. 2010; 137(2):318-325.
Anthonisen N. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Goldman L, et al. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. PubMed Health-COPD
Nutrition for Health and Health Care 3rd Edition Ferri FF. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2011: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2011.
Shapiro SD, et al. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In: Mason RJ, et al. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2010.
Rosenow EC (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 17, 2011. Ashley Robinson, Calen Hart, Blake Westling & Courtni Stever