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Olivia Donofrio

on 9 February 2015

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Transcript of Multimedia

Common Multimedia File Formats
There are many sophisticated video software editors out on the market. At their simplest the software could be used to cut and rearrange the video, it is even able to add an audio track on top of the video. More advanced software can do more things and can even add multiple audio tracks. Chroma key allows for parts of the video to be replaced. In film and T.V. morphing is used to transition to a second image.
Desktop Publishing and Word processing

This is for printing newspapers, magazines, brochures, and books. Desktop publishing software is "what you see is what you get" where how it looks on screen is how it looks when printed. DTP is more focused on the page layout which allows for text, pictures, frames and tables to be placed anywhere.
Chapter 6
Olivia Donofrio and
Larisa Toledo-Delgado

Vector Graphics
Vector Graphics are composed of objects and not pixels (also known as object oriented graphics)
Objects stored as mathematical equations that define a starting point, ending point, and path, along with information about its colour and stlye
All objects are separate and can be separately edited
Typical shapes include ovals, rectangles, lines, and paths which are defined by a series of points
Exported vector images can no longer be edited as vectors
Scaling can be changed without the loss of quality
Digital Audio
Sound is recorded, converted into digital data (digitised), and loaded into audio editing software, where it can be manipulated using effects and filters
Quality of a recorded sound is determined by its sample rate, also called samplying frequency
Sampling rate not to be confused with bit rate
Higher bit rates = larger number of digital values to choose from when taking a sample
Editing Tools
Bitmap Graphics
Social Impacts
Spotting Digital Fakes
Image storage
Bit Depth
Intellectual Property
Bit depth - the number of bits used to store each pixel in the image
Bit rate - a value displayed in some music players; is the amount of data used to represent each second of audio
Bitmap graphics - sometimes called raster graphics; images that are composed of a rectangle of small dots called pixels; almost all images on a computer are bit
Blue Screen - part of chroma key effects allow part of a video image to be replaced with another image or video source by removing specific colours
Bitmap Image - files not commonly supported outside of Windows environments; supports lossless or no compression
Buffer - streaming media systems download a small part of the media which is played while another section is downloaded
Compression - reduces redundant, repeated data in images and reduce the amount of storage space required
CAD (Computer Aided Design) - used to create 3D technical drawings or products in development; allows a product to be viewed in detail before it is created

Almost all images that you deal with on a computer are examples of bit map images. The higher the number of pixels an image has the higher the resolution is.
Bitmap editing has become more common as digital cameras become more widespread. People have been using image editing software to fix images.
Basic bitmap editing can be done with programs that come bundled with many operating systems.
Adobe Photoshop is a commercial program that is the top choice for photographers.
A cheaper version is Photoshop Elements which is designed for home users.
Health and Leisure

Magazines have always used editing software to change the appearance of the models. This enables the magazine to manipulate the model to conform to the stereotypical image of attractiveness.
The impact that his has on society is that there are many expectations of the human body and how it should look.
Legal Impacts
In the trial of OJ Simpson there was a photo provided as evidence that showed that there were a series of bloody footprints were found at the scene of the crime. There was then a photo that showed that Simpson was wearing the same make of shoes, the integrity of the photo was questioned when Simpsons defense team claimed that the photo was manipulated to add the shoes.
All bitmap images are stored in the computer as a rectangular grid of pixels. The better the picture is the better the resolution is. This is due to the amount of pixels that are found in the photo. As the resolution goes down the finer details of the photos are lost. Manufacturers of digital cameras report the resolution in mega pixels.
Social Impacts (Cont.)
Political Impacts
There are many impacts in the political world with the use of photo manipulation from smearing a political campaign and to exaggerating the capability of a country like in the country of Iran and its altered missile photos.

Copyright - a law that provides protection against use of intellectual property by unauthorized users; automatically obtained by author of a work when created
DOC - Microsoft word document; standard format for most versions of Microsoft Word; widely used but many other word processors are not fully compatible with it
DPI (dots per inch) - used with PDI; known as printer resolution and refers to the number of ink dots a printer produces when creating an image
Fair Use - allows exceptions to copyright laws under certain limited circumstances; purpose of copying material being for education, review, parody, or news reports is acceptable
Green Screen - part of the chroma key effects that allow part of a video image to be replaced with another image or video source by removing specific colours
Lossless Compression - looks for repeated patterns of data and stores them where it requires less space, but still allows the original data to be exactly restored
Lossy Compression - sacrifices image quality in return for
reduced storage space
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) - communication standard for music devices, computers, and music creation software
ODT (OpenDocument Text) - format which has the advantage of being an open standard
PDF (Portable Document Format) - a widely used standard for transferring documents, especially if maintaining layout and preventing editing are important features
PPI (Pixels Per Inch) - determines how many pixels are displayed in each inch of the output, whether on screen or paper, determining the physical size of the output and how sharp the image will appear
PNG (Portable Network Graphics) - a lossless format designed to replace GIFs; is an open format and is supported by most web browsers
Raster Graphics - also known as bitmap graphics
Resolution - number of pixels in the grid; higher resolutions mean more detail can be stored in the image
Scientific Impacts
Even Scientific photos can be manipulated like in the case of Kaushik Deb and Dr. Hwang Woo Suk who altered the photos of their research and were later caught and lost credibility.
To find the storage requirements of an image it is just knowing the resolution, and the bit depth and some simple calculations.
1600 x 1200 x 3 = 5,760,000 bytes
5,760,000 / 1024 = 5,625 KB
5,625 / 1024 = 5.49 MB
Often confused with PPI, DPI is also known as printer resolution. This measures the amount of ink dots that a printer produces when printing an image.
For printers to produce all possible colours needed it must mix inks
Do this by producing multiple dots of ink in the same spot on the paper.
Higher number of dots per inch means more colors mixed in finer quantities meaning more accurate color reproduction and smoother transition between different colour tones
More ink is consumed
Video Formats
AVI (Audio Video Interleave)

MOV (Used by Quick time)

MP4 (Motion Pictures expert Group)

WMV (Windows Media Video)
Common Multimedia File Formats
Audio Formats
AAC (Advanced Audio Coding)

FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec)

MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer 3)

WAV (Wave)

WMA (Windows Media Audio)
Common Multimedia File Formats
Image Formats
BMP (Bitmap Image)
TIF (Tagged image file format)
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
PNG (Portable Network Graphics
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
PSD (Photoshop Document)
RAW (Raw Image)
CR2 (Raw Image)
SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics)
Digital Video
RTF (Rich Text Format) - format that allows for some text formatting and layout information to be saved
Streaming Media - describes video or audio data that is played while it is being downloaded from the Internet
TXT (Plain text) - contains no formatting information but is universally compatible
Zip file - common format for general file compression
used extensively in many areas of application, from computer games and films to advertising, television work, and scientific work
Increased Internet bandwidth has allowed richer multimedia and interactive content to be downloaded and displyed on even the smallest of devices
Cropping and scaling are used to edit images. Cropping is to cut off parts of an image and scaling is to increase or reduce the size of an image
Cloning/Stamp tool is to copy one part of an image into another part of an image
Layers allow several images to be 'stacked' on top of each other
Filters are effect features such as colour balance features, convert image to black and white and sharpen the image to show detail or blur it
Photos that are obviously fake, for instance the photo of the tourist on top of the twin towers just as the aircraft hits it, can be confirmed as fake using a search engine looking up "world trade center fake"
Use of copy-paste and cloning tools leave signs repeated pixels
Special photographic analysis software that scans images looking for regions of similar colour and content
Lighting in an image can reveal manipulations - inconsistency in spots of light on skin or in angle and size of shapes
Bit depth affects quality
Higher the bit depth, the more colours an image can contain, but the more storage space it requires
1-bit image can use 2 colours because 1-bit has 2 possible states (either 0 or 1)
2-bit image can have 4 colours because 4 different numbers can be represented in 2 bits: 00, 01, 10, and 11; requires twice as much storage
24-bit most common for photographs (also known as true colour)
24 bits = 3 bytes
in each pixel one byte is used to represent the level of red in the pixel, one byte to represent green, and one byte to represent blue
Only a few file formats store data using uncompression
Most file formats use compression to reduce redundant, repeated data in images and reduce the amount of storage space required
Lossless Compression
Look for repeated patterns of data and stores them in a manner which requires less space, but still allows the original data to be exactly restored
Only works well with images that have large solid blocks of the same color
Less effective at compressing photographs because most photos have a large variety of subtle shades rather than solid blocks of colour
Compression Cont.
Lossy Compression
sacrifices image quality to reduce storage space
does this by discarding data that wont be missed
Problem with lossy is discarded data is permanently done
JPEG uses lossy compression
Compressing Other Data
program files compressed using lossy so save bandwidth when downloading
common formats: zip, rar, 7zip
Pixels Per Inch determines how many pixels are displayed in each inch of the output, on screen or paper
Determines physical size of output and its sharpness
Lower values will result in the quality being lower, especially at short viewing distances
Musical Instrument Digital Interface is a communication standard for music devices, computers, and music creation software
Does not communicate any digital sound information and instead have built in recordings of different instruments played at different notes and pitches
Files contain only the instructions for how to play these instruments, but not the actual sound themselves
Same MIDI file can sound different on different playback devices, depending on the quality of the instruments recordings the device uses
To play compressed audio or video an appropriate codec is needed, codecs are used to to encode recorded audio and video. codecs are commonly included with most operating systems and media players, but a seperate download for a codec may be needed.
Digital Video (Cont.)
Streaming Video
This is when you are downloading the media while also watching it. Most streaming media has a buffer that allows for part of the media to be played while another part is downloading. The quality of the stream depends on the network, for perfect quality the download and the playback are almost exactly the same, for stuttering playback a lower resolution may be used.
Master pages
are important feature and allow for the creation of a consistent layout , the features that are dded to the master page may are added to the other pages.
DTP (Cont.)
Templates provide a layout and all the user has to do is replace the text and graphics provided with what they want.
Grouping help manage multiple objects
Alignment options help adjust the position of objects into a more accurate position.
DTP software also has complex typography options, such as changing the kerning and tracking and ligature.
DTP software usually exports as PDF and includes colour management software such as colour separation that allows the colours to be in layers representing each color component (CMYK)

Intellectual property refers to non-physical creations like stories, art and computer software
The copyright law protects these intellectual properties from unauthorized usage
automatically obtained by the author of work when created
Fair use
Document File Formats
(Micorsoft word Document) Standard for Microsoft, .doc files are widely used, other word processors may not be compatible with it.

(Microsoft Word Doc, office open XML) Standard for newer versions of Microsoft word.

(OpenDocument Text) Advantage due to being open standard. (allows ay developer to use the doc.)

(Portable Document Format) Widely usestandard for transferring documents, especially to maintain layout and to prevent editing.

(plain Text) Contains no formatting, universally compatible.

(Rich Text Format) Allows for some text formatting and layout info to be saved.
exceptions to copyright laws under certain limitations
purpose of copying material must be for: new reporting, parody, or review of material for educational purposes
if profit is made due to the copying it is not considered fair use
Colour Synchronisation
Intellectual Property Cont.
This is to obtain an accurate shade of a colour, it is very important in professional video, photography and publishing.
Colour synchronisation is used to ensure that the printer uses the same colour used in the software.
ICC Colour profiles help to achieve consistent colours regardless of output medium.
Free licenses
Creative Commons licensing gives creators a way to freely lisence their work but with conditions such as :
any changes made to the work are also free
work is not used for commercial purposes
GNU Free Documentation License has no restrictions on the use of the work
free works are known as copyleft
Citing Sources
must credit the author of whatever work is used
small number of key words rather than presenting large sets of text
Know what you are talking about
Face your audience
Use complimentary colours
photographs over clip art to illustrate concepts
Transitions simple and consistent
Short and focused
Be flexible
Lots of text = more reading and less listening
Reading off of slides = boring presentation
Images for backgrounds are distracting
Colors clashing and make it hard to read
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