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Methods of Extracting Metals

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by

Jake Eyers

on 16 June 2014

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Transcript of Methods of Extracting Metals

Smelting
Phytomining
When an ore has so little of the actual metal, and it is not cost effective to use other methods such as electrolysis. High biomass plans are grown on top of the deposit of low-grade ore. The plants absorb the metal. The plants are then burnt, and the metal retrieved from the ash.
Reduction
Is the extraction of metals using carbon in the form of coke. For this method to be used the metal must be below carbon in the reactivity series. The carbon draws out the oxygen leaving you with just the metal.
Methods of Extracting Metals
Ore: An ore is a metal-bearing mineral or rock, or a non-metal.

Low Grade Ore: An Ore That only contains small amounts of the wanted metal or mineral.

High Grade Ore: An Ore that contains large amounts of the wanted metal or mineral

Electrolysis
Electrolysis uses electricity to extract metal from ores. First the metal (usually as an oxide) is made into a solution. Two graphite electrodes are lowered into the solution one positive (Anode) and one negative (Cathode). When the electricity is turned on the the metal becomes molten and moves towards the cathode. The Oxygen or other substance goes to the Anode.
Electrolysis can be very expensive as it
requires lots of electricity. The
higher the melting point of
the metal the more electricity
it takes to make molten.
Bioleaching
Thank You For Listening
Any Questions?
By Jake Eyers
Iron Oxide
Carbon
Iron
Carbon Dioxide
+
+
Not this Coke,
Compressed
Carbon
Smelting is one of the most common methods
of extracting metals. The raw materials are put into
a blast furnace and hot air is fed into the furnace which heats up the carbon and makes it react with the iron oxide. This means that we are left with Iron, Carbon Dioxide and waste materials in the form of
slag. This method can only be used if the metal is
below carbon on the reactivity scale.
Ingredients

The Ore in it's naturally
occurring form, e.g. Hematite
- Iron, Bauxite - Aluminium

Carbon in the form of coke
(Compressed Carbon) to
remove the oxygen.

Limestone to draw out the
impurities in the ore-coke
mix. This reaction produces
the slag.
Some bacteria absorb metal compounds. They then break them down and produce solutions called leachates, which contain metal compounds. This method of extraction is called bioleaching. It is more commonly used on low grade ores. This method is environmentally friendly. It is usually used on copper.
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