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Effects and Impacts of the 2004 Asian Tsunami

Case Study for Seismicity for the AQA A2 Geography Specification.
by

Ciaran Elliott

on 8 February 2013

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Transcript of Effects and Impacts of the 2004 Asian Tsunami

Effects and Impacts of the Asian Tsunami Many areas around
the Indian Ocean were affected... Environmental Social Economic Long-Term Immediate Primary Secondary "A range of factors..." Seychelles Economic Social Environmental Economic
Impacts 14% of the
Government's National Budget
is due to tourism. Tourist restores
damaged, and many
bookings withdrawn. Many jobs lost due
to damage. Local fishing boats
destroyed. Social
Impacts 10 people
reported dead
due to the
tsunami. Environmental
Impacts Heavy damage to
beaches due to
erosion being exacerbated the sheer
force of the tsunami. Damage to coral reef beds on some of the
islands nearing 100%. Saline water damaging
food crops, causing around
$70,000 USD in damage. Adult sea turtle
nesting beaches damaged due to
erosion. Small sewage spills affecting the sanitation of the area and the spread of disease. Sri Lanka Economic Social Environmental Economic
Impacts Around $675 million to $700 million USD of private assets lost. Reduction to GDP in 2005 to 5% from 6% in 2004. Many jobs lost due to
damage from the tsunami. Many fishing boats, crops and farmland destroyed. Social
Impacts One million people made
homeless. Nearly 31,000 people dead,
and around 5,600 people missing. Around 80,000 homes
were reported
destroyed. Environmental
Impacts Many coral reefs damaged
by the sheer force of
the tsunami. Mangroves and wetlands initially damaged in various areas on the eastern coast. Maldives Economic Social Environmental Economic
Impacts Around $120 million to $260 million USD of public assets were lost. The exacerbation of damages across the Maldives due to lasting damage to the economy. A total loss of 50% -80% of the Maldives' GDP. Social
Impacts 82 people reported dead,
and 26 people reported missing. 21, 500 people reported
homeless. Out of the Isles...
13 were destroyed
56 received major damage
121 received partial damage. Half of the country's households were affected. Environmental
Impacts Extensive flooding caused
dirty water to circulate throughout various marine ecosystems. Low-lying coral islands heavily affected by dirty water. Coastal structures in the
Maldives heavily damaged by the tsunami. Dredging of natural defenses,
such as the gravel shore (storm beach) and sand from coral reefs. Somalia Economic Social Environmental Economic
Impacts Somalia does not have a functioning government, and is thus unable to distribute aid effectively. 2,400 boats smashed, leading to a lack of jobs for many people. 12,000 homes have been destroyed and will need to be replaced. Social
Impacts 200 people died due to the effects of the tsunami. Water wells made unusable due to clogging by sand, reducing the access to clean water. Environmental
Impacts Both surface and groundwater sources were contaminated with saline water, affecting the breeding grounds of endemic species. Major problems for public health and animal welfare in the area. The various coastal communities (both human and animal) depend on surface and groundwater for survival. Thailand Economic Social Environmental Economic
Impacts Inability to replace fishing equipment such as tackles, boats and bait led to the halt of fishing in coastal communities directly after the tsunami. The estimated cost of damages (excluding houses) totals to approximately $353.4 million USD. Social
Impacts 1,700 tourists were killed during the tsunami from 36 countries in the tourist resorts of Phuket. 5,395 people within Thailand were also killed. 2,817 people were missing due to the tsunami, and 1,650 are still unidentified. 1,480 children were left orphaned in wake of the tsunami. 50 schools and 19 government buildings were reported to either have been destroyed or damaged. Diseases were spread from rotting bodies in the tourist resort of Phuket. Environmental
Impacts A number of coastal and land ecosystems were affected. Around 15%~20% of the coral reefs damaged by siltation or sand infiltration. Many ecosystems will have incurred irreparable damage, and will take years to recover (e.g. coral reefs). The backwash from the tsunami wave carried debris from inland areas that also damaged fragile marine ecosystems (i.e. coral reefs). Indonesia Economic Social Environmental Economic
Impacts One million jobs were lost due to the tsunami. Immediate costs are high. However, in the long term, it is estimated that Banda Aceh would require $4 billion USD to rebuild over the next five years. Social
Impacts 800,000 people were made homeless, as many people did not have the financial means to rebuild their homes. Environmental
Impacts Sumatra was the worst island affected, flooding coastal areas and inland areas reaching from 500m to 2km from the western coast. Due to the earthquake, many submarine coral reef beds in shallow water were raised above sea level, adding to the 30% of coral reefs badly damaged. The contamination of aquifers due to salt water intrusion, sewage, debris and hazardous material proved difficult to remedy. Cities and towns in the coastal area were extensively damaged, along with 25%-35% of the wetlands. India Economic Social Environmental Economic
Impacts Damage to the mainland has been assessed at $1.2 billion USD. There has been a reduction of 0.4% of GDP over four years. Social
Impacts 14,000 people from fishing families had to go to relief centres. Most water sources were polluted, especially on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Environmental
Impacts Damage and loss to natural habitats of species endemic to the area. Along the coastal strip, it is estimated that 48,925 ha of forest area was affected. It is assumed that 30% of this area has been lost. Damages cost
up to
£15 million Long Term Secondary
Greater impact
due to... Long Term Secondary Greater impact
due to... Long Term Secondary This leads to... This leads to... Many
people made
homeless due to the
tsunami. Long Term Secondary Damage to public
buildings and
transport due to
tsunami waves. Secondary Immediate 40,000 people had
lost their jobs. Long Term Secondary Damage to public buildings
and transport, due to seismic waves. Immediate Primary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Immediate Secondary $300 million
USD of public assets lost. Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary This led to... This led to... Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Immediate Secondary Long Term Secondary Around $190 million to $250 million USD of private assets were lost. Long Term Secondary Secondary Long Term This led to... This led to... This led to... Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary This led to... Immediate Secondary This is due to... The inability to determine a meaningful assessment of its immediate and long term needs in spite of the tsunami. Long Term This is due to... Immediate Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary The spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera. Which may have affected... Which led to... Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary This contributes to... This contributes to... Major sources of income (i.e. Tourism in Phuket) were lost, affecting the livelihood of 120,000+ people throughout Thailand. Long Term Secondary Immediate Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Immediate Secondary Long Term Secondary Immediate Secondary This means that... This means that... Long Term Secondary Immediate and Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary More than 70% of the population died. This has resulted in the country becoming underpopulated as a result. Long Term Secondary 127,000 people have been reported missing, causing emotional distress to friends and families of the victims of the tsunami. Long Term Secondary Immediate Secondary Long Term Primary Long Term Secondary Immediate Secondary Farmland was destroyed around coastal regions. Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Immediate Secondary 8,800 people were found dead after the tsunami hit. Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Long Term Secondary Large areas (approximately 300km) of coastal land has been degraded or lost. Long Term Secondary
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