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Welcome to Psychology

Fall 2015 - Monroe College
by

James Young

on 27 October 2016

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Transcript of Welcome to Psychology

Interests
Welcome Activity
Cognition and Mental Abilities
Chapter 1
Chapter 4 Sleep
Email Address
.
.
Welcome Activity
Logo Activity
Name the Company
Create a Name Tent
: Write your first name (or whatever you liked to be called) using a marker on both sides of the tent. Place the tent on the table where you are sitting.
Why

Pysch
?: Open your notebook and write 3 short paragraphs answering the following questions.
1. What do you know about psychology?
2. What are you hoping to gain from this course?
3. How will psychology help you in the future.
Introductions
: Introduce yourself and get to know two people in the class. Try:
1. Asking someone what classes they are taking.
2. Asking someone what their major is.
3. Asking someone what they think about Monroe.
Chapter 1
Introduction to Psychology
Welcome to
4:45 -6:15 - Psy 39 Monday/Wednesday
10:40 - 12:10 - Psy 05 Tuesday/Thursday

Room 425

Definition
Scientific Study of Behavior and Mental Processes.
Biopsychology
Evolutionary Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Personality Psychology
Social Psychology
Industrial and Organizational
Health Psychology
Sports and Exercise Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Forensic Psychology
Fields in Psychology
Person
Nature
Stability
Diversity
Mind

Enduring Issues
Chapter 4
States of Consciousness
What is learning?
Chapter 6 - Learning
jyoung@monroecollege.edu
Logo Alphabet
Situation
Nurture
Change
Universality
Body
vs.
Sleep
Circadian Cycles: The Biological Clock
24 hours of light and dark
humans, animals, plants and one-celled organisms
Governed by Suprachiasmatic Nucleas (SCN)
Controls body temp., metabolism, blood pressure, hormone levels, and hunger

Epinephrine
- ALERT! - peak in the late morning hours and steadily declines and drops after midnight.
Melatonin
- promotes sleep - surge at night and drop off during the day.
Stages of Sleep - 4.3
4 Stages and cycles of sleep
1/3
Sleep Deprivation
9 hours of sleep 80% get less
28% of high school students fall asleep in class
22% fall asleep doing homework
14% arrive late or miss class

People do not adapt to chronic sleep loss.
Difficult to pay attention
Difficult to remember
Reaction time slows down
Behavior becomes unpredictable
Logical reasoning becomes impaired
Accidents and errors in judgement increase
Ability to make good decisions decrease
Physical illness: heart attacks, asthma, strokes, high blood pressure and diabetes.
Mental illness: depression
Take quiz
Sleep Hygiene
Routine
Bed for sleeping only
Shut the tv off.
Dreams
visual and auditory experiences that our minds create during sleep.
4-5 dreams a night
Waking up during REM = graphic
Why do we Dream?
Unconscious Wishes
Information Processing - Strengthen memory, process emotion, learning.
Extension of waking life.
Altered States of Consciousness
Drug-altered
Consciousness
Depressants
Alcohol
Barbiturates/Tranquilizers
Opiates
Stimulants
Amphetamines
Cocaine
Caffeine
Nicotine
Hallucinogens
LSD
Marijuana
Mediation and
Hypnosis
Typical Effects/Effects of Overdoes/
Tolerance & Dependence
Review for Test 1
Psychology
Fields
Enduring Issues
The Growth of Psychology
Circadian Rhythm
Sleep and Dreams
Meditation
Drugs
Topics to Study
Sample: Dorina had a headache this morning (after she skipped her morning coffee. Later, she drank a cup of coffee, and her headache went away. All of the following may be occurring except for:
1. Dorina was experiencing withdrawal symptoms.
2. Dorina has a substance dependency.
3. Dorina was dehydrated and coffee rehydrated her.
4. Dorina has developed a tolerance for caffeine.
The scientific study of mental processes and behavior is:
1. Functionalism
2. Structuralism
3. Behaviorism
4. None of the above.
Introduction to Psychology
Prof. Young
Homework:
Take test on Blackboard/Content/Test
Take test as many times until Sunday, 5 PM.
Last recorded grade is what is submitted.
Research Decision
Write one page MLA format introducing your topic for research. In this one page paper, you can ask questions, provide an outline, and specify your thesis.
Read the learning chapter

Agenda:
Last Minute Review Questions
MLA and APA Questions
Chapter on Learning
Vicarious Learning
My Monroe
Proquest ABI Inform
Full Text
Peer Review
Pavlov's Dogs
Classical Conditioning
Prof. James Young
jyoung@monroecollege.edu

the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior.
What do you think of when you think of learning?

What are some of your previous learning experiences?

Pick one and write about it!
Agenda
1. Test Feedback and Gradebook
2. Learning Personal Experience
3. Learning about Learning
a. Classical Conditioning
b. Operant Conditioning
c. Bio and Neuro feedback
d. Cognitive
e. Vicarious
Classical Conditioning
- Pairing
- US, UR, CS, CR

- Conditioned Stimulus
- Conditioned Response
- Unconditioned Stimulus
- Unconditioned Response

Create an example when you have been conditioned classically.
Automatic
Biological
Passive
Three Points
Operant Conditioning
Reinforcments
- Positive
- Negative
Behavior increases
Stimulus is present
Stimulus is removed
Behavior increases
3 Points:
Voluntary
Active
Can be reflexive
Write an example of how you have been operantly conditioned?
Candy
Terrible Sound
You put on seatbelt
You put money in
Does Punishment work?
What does research say?
Insight
Cognitive Map
Latent Learning
Cognitive Learning
Vicarious + Reinforcement

Vicarious - Reinforcement
Which is stronger?
Questions to Research:
Is divergent thinking or convergent thinking better for problem solving?
Is multitasking really efficient?
How is Intelligence measured?
What is the range of IQ?


What is the best way to solve:
1. the problem of picking a
school?
2. the problem of a car coming
coming at you?
3. figuring out what time to set the alarm
if you have to get the airport for 4 AM?

Psychology - Prof. Young
jyoung@monroecollege.edu
Cognition & Mental Abilities
Cognition – The process whereby we acquire and use knowledge.
Activity:
Girl vs. Woman Article
Is language male Dominated?
What is Linguistic Relativism?



Phonemes
Morphemes
Grammar
Syntax
Semantics
Transformations – Noam Chomsky
Meaning – Sentences – Morphemes - Phonemes
Image

Prototype (or Model)
Building blocks of thought
:
Concept
Language
Meaning – Sentences – Morphemes - Phonemes
1. Hill Climbing
2. Subgoals
3. Means-end analysis
4. Working backward
What does each section mean?
1. Logical-mathematical
2. Linguistic
3. Spatial
4. Musical
5. Bodily-kinesthetic
6. Interpersonal
7. Intrapersonal
8. Naturalistic
9. Spiritual/Existential
10. Moral
What is IQ??
Announcements:
Grid Review
Paper Deadlines
Chapter on Thinking and Intelligence

Agenda:
Cognition and Mental Abilities
Games
A. Coins
B. 9 Dots

• Problem Presentation
Interpreting problems
How Do We Solve Problems?
o Trial and Error
o Information Retrieval
o Algorithms
o Heuristics
Theory of Multiple Intelligences – Howard Gardner – http://www.businessballs.com/howardgardnermultipleintelligences.htm
1. Select a partner and grab about 10 coins.
2. Split the pile into two piles
3. Take any amount of coins you want from one pile, and then it is your partner's turn.
4. Your partner can take any amount of coins from either pile.
5. Keep going back and forth until the one of you takes the last coin. He or she is the winner!
Agenda - Prof. Young - Intro to Psychology

1. Test Discussion
2. Research - APA??
3. Research - Smarthinking
4. Research - Citations and Proper Writing
Citations: In Text and Bibliography
Proper Writing: You/Research/You
5. Syllabus Upcoming Chapters:
Motivation and Emotion
Personality
Stress and Health Psychology
Proquest: "Heteronormative environments pose a potential harmful environment for students who identify within the LGBT spectrum" (Maisto, 2014).


Stress affects all college students, but gay and lesbian students have another layer of stress that they most contend with. According to research, "Heteronormative environments pose a potential harmful environment for students who identify within the LGBT spectrum" (Maisto, 2014). This means that whatever level of stress a straight college student faces with exams, papers, and making a good impression with new friends, a gay or lesbian student has an added layer of stress. This added layer of the heteronormative environment could potentially disadvantage a new student who is already stressed, thus turning what could be an A student into a B or C student.
James Young Writes:
You
You
Research
Motivation and Emotion
Prof. James Young
jyoung@monroecollege.edu

Motivational
Theories
1. Drive Reduction Theory
2. Arousal Theory
3. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
4. Hierarchy of Motives
5. Stimulus Motives
6. Achievement Motive
7. Affiliation Motive
Emotions
Prof. Young
How many emotions are there?
How are emotions tied to our well-being? Remember the list below
• Essential to survival
• Major source of personal enrichment and resilience
• Related to immune function, and thereby to disease
• May influence how successful we are
• They help us to adjust to the demands of the environment

James-Lange Theory
Cannon-Bard Theory
Cognitive Theory
Cognitive Theory Challenge
Izard’s Theory

Theories on Emotion

Cognition follow emotions
Facial expression first!
Emotions and physiological changes happen simultaneously
Emotions result from physiological changes
Emotional experience depends on one’s perception of a situation

Videos on Emotion
TED Talk: Dr. Habib Sadeghi discusses how emotions and thoughts affect our health
The Science of Emotions
Emotion Technology
The Neuroscience of Emotion
Power Posing
Optional Papers:

Choice 1: List, define, describe, and then create original examples of each of the emotional theories from the text.

Chioce 2: Watch a video and answer these questions. What is the video talking about? What are the main points? What are you learning about emotion? How can this apply to your learning about emotions and psychology?
What is personality?

What do these folks say about it?
Freud
Jung
Adler
Horney
Erikson
Rogers
The Big Five
How do we measure it?
Objective
Projective
TAT
Rorschach
Sentence Completion
Use the textbook, notes on BB and Google to triangulate your findings for these answers.
Starting with an exercise, write a few sentences or make a list about what you see and tell me what it reminds you of.
unique patterns of thoughts feelings and behaviors
persists over time and situations
Gestalt and Humanistic Psychology
Cognitive Psychology, Malsow
Positive, Feminist, etc.
Mary Cover Jones
Reflection Paper due next Week!!
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/erikson.html
Research Questions?
Test 2 Feedback
Class Feedback
Motivation Group Work
Therapies
Active Listening
- Clarify
- Reflection
- Paraphrase
- Summarize
Psychodynamic
Cognitive
Behavioral
Gestalt
Biological

Closed Probe:
- Did you feel sad?

Open Probe
- How did you feel?

Replace "Why" with "What or How"

Mirror
- body language
- words
- feelings
Start with:
- So, are you saying....?
- Let me see if I understand, you said ...
- So, ....
- So, what I hear you say is...
Pay attention the theme

Reflect the content and end with theme using your words.
Example:
- So after a long day, you then had to work with your kids, write a paper and prepare lunches for tomorrow. That sounds like a tiring day. Are you feeling overwhelmed?
Reflect several themes.
Paying attention to the patterns, you can summarize the themes shared.
Example:
- So, you are experiencing a lot of stress with your upcoming exam, feel guilty that you haven't started your research paper, and yet confident you will be able to get it all this week. Overall, it seems like your school work is coming to an end and though you are currently behind, you feel you can end on a successful note. Is that correct?
Week 1 Agenda:
Review Documents on Blackboard
Grid/Welcome Letter
Get Textbook
Chapter 1
Define Psychology
Theorists in Psychology
Fields of Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt
William James
Sigmund Freud
John B. Watson
BF Skinner
https://cognition-perception-senses.knoji.com/william-james-functionalism-theory-of-attention-and-consciousness/
http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/structuralism.htm
http://www.feministvoices.com/mary-cover-jones/
http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/watson.htm
http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
The
Growth of Psychology
1. This week - Read Chapter on "States of Consciousness."

2. What's due next week?

Reflection 2 Due Next Week!

Questions and Comments

Review Chapter 1

Content:
1. List different states of consciousness.
2. Define dreams and articulate the purpose of dreaming.
3. Describe the Circadian Rhythm and apply that to jet lag.
4. List the benefits of sleep and the consequences of sleep deprivation.
5. Explain various methods of inducing altered states of consciousness.
Agenda:
http://www.sleepandhealth.com/are-you-sleep-deprived-short-quiz
Sleep Deprivation
in College Students
Side Effects of
Sleep Deprivation
What about you?
Measured with the WISC, WAIS
Name Tents
Attendance
Student Comments
Textbook
Open Stax
Grey Book
Blackboard
Syllabus and Welcome Letter
Reflection Papers
MLA Format
Citations using Word
In text and References
Notes
Helpful Printable Sheets
Quizzes
Multiple Choice
Several days
No Exceptions
Young's Philosophy
Learning Community
We are all learners/teachers
Ask/Park questions
Do the work
Reachout
Collaborate
Student Learning - Teachers Teaching
I believe students learning is more important than teachers teaching.
Why Psych - Introductions
Housekeeping
Freud:
What are the Manifest and Latent Contents of Dreams?
Homework:
1. Print Grid and Welcome Letter
2. Textbook -
http://cnx.org/contents/Sr8Ev5Og@5.46:6HoLG-TA@5/Introduction
Read Chapter 1
3. Review Sample Reflection
Agenda
Reflections
Stapled
MLA Formatted
APA Citation
Enduring Issues in Psychology
History of Psychology
Theorists
http://lifehacker.com/this-two-minute-video-is-a-basic-guide-to-mediation-1786737245
Intro Two Minute Video
Ted Talk Video
Memory
Three Components
the set of processes used to
encode
,
store
and
retrieve
information over different periods of time.
Encoding
input of information into the memory system
Sensory Register
using our senses, we intake information
Automatic Processing


Effortful Processing


Visual Encoding

Acoustic Encoding
encoding of details like time, space, frequency, and the meaning of words.
done out of conscious awareness
using effort to encode the information for future retrieval
done with conscious awareness
the encoding of images
the encoding of sounds
Self-reference effect - What is this?
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin created the model of human memory Atkinson-Shiffrin (A-S)
Baddeley and Hitch's model includes three sections for short-term memory
Models for Understanding Memory
Encoding
Chunking
Implicit Memories
memories we consciously try to remember and recall
memories that are not part of our consciousness.
formed from behaviors
non-declarative memory

type of implicit memory.
stores information about how to do things

Procedural Memories
Explicit Memories
storage of facts and events we have personally experienced.
Declarative Memories
Semantic Memory
Episodic Memory
knowledge about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts
Ex: Who was the first President of the US?
information about events we have personally experienced
memory about happenings in particular places at particular times
involves recollection of visual imagery as well as a feeling of familiarity
Types of Memories
Brain Development
1. What did Karl Lashley discover about the brain and memory?
2. What is the main job of the Amygdala? How do we know this?
3. What does the hippocampus do?
4. How about the Cerebellum and the Prefontal Cortex?
5. What is a neurotransmitter?
6. What is the arousal theory as it relates to memory?



1. What is Amnesia?
2. Anterograde Amnesia?
3. Retrograde Amnesia
4. What about Suggestibility?
5. What might you say about eyewitness accounts? Are they accurate? Why?
6. What is the misinformation effect?
7. Is that different from false memories?
8. Why do we forget things?
9. What are seven sins of Memory
10. What is interference?
Problems with memory
Agenda
Today - Memory
Hooks and Pegs
Brain Development
Problems with Memory
Test Starts Today
Learning, Thinking, Memory
Next Class
Emotion And Motivation
Full transcript