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Masculinity VS Femininity in the United States
Transcript of Masculinity VS Femininity in the United States
in the USA Masculinity is defined as the desire to be the best. This is different from femininity because femininity in culture manifests in the desire to participate in more activities based on enjoyment rather than skill. Masculinity People in a feminine culture do what they enjoy, even if they don't make much money (people care about quality, not quantity). The people are usually cooperative and modest. Often, feminine cultures care for the weak. Feminine societies are more consensus-oriented. Femininity Geert Hofstede created a comprehensive study that analyzed workplace environments in different countries. The study was originally conducted by IBM, but the applicability of the study has gone on to change and perfect social interactions between different cultures. Hofstede has published several times about the workplace culture. Our research pertains to only one aspect of Hofstede's research: Masculinity and Femininity. Geert Hofstede Denmark is a very feminine country with a score of only 16 In feminine countries, strong leaders are critical to an effective workplace. Quality of life is also really important to these societies. Japan has an extremely high masculinity of 95. In the workplace you can see the pressure for perfection in all of their endeavors. The workplace is full of competition. Geert gives examples of the material services in Japan such as hotels and restaurants. They also pride themselves on presentation. These characteristics are not exclusive of Japan, but in combination with the masculinity they become representative of the culture. Survey Hypothesis: Cedar Ridge Students will present with more masculine characteristics which will validate Hofstede’s theory. 1) Do you participate in more activities that you enjoy or in activities that you must participate (playing sports vs. homework)?
1- I spend more time doing activities that I have to do
2- I spend more time doing activities that I enjoy. 2) Would you prefer to play your favorite sport as a starter for two years and then get a different job or sit as a bench-warmer for thirty years? You would get paid the same amount for each year on the team.
1- Play for two years as a starter
2- Bench-warmer for thirty years 3) Is it better to be the best at something or is it better to love the activity?
1- Better to be the best at something
2- Better to love the activity Our Data Results Q. 1 Q. 2 Q.3 Validity Population Considerations Sample Technique Research Question: Is Cedar Ridge High School an accurate representation of the masculine culture in the United States of America? We used opportunity sampling for both the survey and the group interviews. A limitation of our population sample is the environment in which the sample was taken. Because it was surveyed during lunch with students' peers around, answers might not be as accurate because of pressure to conform. We used an opportunity sampling. This means that we only used students who were willing to participate at a specific time and place. This was the most convenient type of sampling due to the time and location constraints placed on us. This technique was convenient, yet had some downfalls. The major weaknesses included lack of consistency, cluster opinions, and natural variation. Preliminary research was taken via a survey. This survey asked three questions pertaining to masculine tendencies in work habits as well as feminine tendencies. A weakness of the survey is the lack of depth. Because the answers to the questions are numerical, there is no room for variation between people. A noteworthy strength of the survey is the anonymity of it so participants can answer honestly. Research Methods United States After the survey, we conducted a casual group interview to gain a better sense if the collective was masculine or feminine and whether or not it supported the individual results of the survey. A weakness of the group interviews is that people might change their answers to be more in line with the responses of the group. A strength of the group interviews is that it allows people to think about their responses and answer in more of a discussion form while still staying on topic. The United States scored a 62 on Geert's scale, which indicates a masculine tendency. This means that the US has a winner take all mentality. When playing in sports or in education the US strives to be the absolute best. It is common that the people of the US discuss their successes and achievements amongst one another. Winning is considered the ultimate goal. The US also presents a masculine culture, as people may be more likely in the US than in other countries to pick a job that they are good at, or that will make them more money rather than a job they enjoy. Interview What are some activities that you enjoy? (for example, TV, animals, sports, games) What are some activities that you have to do? (Chores, homework) Which do you find yourself doing more often? How important do you think excelling in school or sports are? How important is it for you to space out your activities in order to avoid stress? Results Our Interview Data Why It's Important Triangulation Masculine Feminine 63.75 36.25 66.25 33.75 33.75 66.25 Average 34.58 65.42 Behaviors Feminine Masculine Doing required
things Destressing Doing well 14 6 5 15 1 19 All tables that were interviewed showed to be easily influenced by fellow members. Most activities listed for the tables were the same. Example:
When the tables were asked what they did that they had to do, almost all tables answered chores or homework. The tables that answered homework, though, seemed to all answer homework. When asked what they enjoyed doing when one person would answer sports the rest of the table would nod in agreement and say the same thing. Our study has little to no validity. The survey shows a majority of feminine responses and the interview shows masculine responses. The variation in our two methods does not support our hypothesis or Hofstede's. Using multiple methods can help reveal inconsistencies. Triangulation is important to confirm whether or not data and results are valid. Approaching research with a multitude of procedures is a better way to prove a hypothesis. Due to opportunity sampling and other variables the responses to our research methods were not consistent with Hofstede's research. A way to improve the validity of our research would be to extend the sampling to outside of the school. High school students have not had all the experiences of an adult. Also, the competition between students is different than competition between colleagues. Conclusion Due to the problems with validity our survey and interview ultimately negated each other making our hypothesis incorrect. The survey showed a strong feminine presence within Cedar Ridge while the interview showed a more masculine presence. Since we used opportunity sampling rather than true random sampling or using the entire population of Cedar Ridge, this may have skewed the results and led to why our hypothesis was wrong. The selection was biased because the interviewer went up to the same basic groups, the people the interviewer knew. The interviewed may have also lied about their answers where in the anonymous survey they would have answered honestly, because they had an intelligent peer in front of them asking questions.