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Langer and Rodin (1976)
Transcript of Langer and Rodin (1976)
'The Effects of Choice and Enhanced Personal Responsibility for the
Aged By the end of today's lesson, you will be able to:
Describe Langer and Rodin's study.
Outline the aims and context.
Describe the procedures
Describe the findings and conclusions. Context What is control? What things do you have control over? How much control do you have over your life? How important is control? As a person gets older, they may experience a loss of roles and a decreased sense of responsibility. Old people may feel a lack of control If old people have a lessened feeling of control, how could this lead to the physical and psychological problems associated with old age? Seligman (1975) linked a lack of control to depression. Ferrare (1962)
Studied 17 elderly people, placed in an
old peoples home not through their own choice.
After 4 weeks, 8 had died and a further 8 died after 10 weeks. What does this evidence suggest about control and health? Aims Previous research suggests a link between control and mental/physical health. Langer & Rodin’s aim was to assess directly the effects of enhanced personal responsibility and choice in a nursing home environment. Physical and mental alertness
General level of satisfaction
Would it also be generalised to other aspects of their lives Procedures There were two groups used in this study from two different floors of the care home and all participants were similar in terms of physical and psychological health. The study took place in a nursing home in Conneticut that was rated as one of the finest. (Arden House) One floor was randomly assigned to the experimental group (responsibility assigned group, RIG) and the other floor was to act as a control group (CG). In the RIG group there were 8 males and 39 females and in the CG group there were 9 males and 35 females. Both groups given a talk by an administrator at the home. Three days later, the message was reiterated. 2 questionnaires used which were designed to assess the effect of induced responsibility, both used before the experiment, and three weeks later. Questionnaire 1: For residents. Assessed their sense of control, happiness and activeness
Questionnaire 2: Two nurses who worked on both floors. Assessed happiness, alertness, dependency, sociability and activity. Resident’s behaviour was also recorded. Findings The pre-test assessment questionnaire revealed that the two groups were very similar prior to the start of the study. The pre-test and post-test scores were cpmpared between the two groups. Residents in the RIG group reported significantly greater increases in happiness after the experiment than the CG group. In the RIG group, 48% of residents reported feeling happier, compared with only 25% of the CG group. The nurses believed that 93% of residents in the RIG group had improved (i.e had greater perceived control and satisfaction) compared with only 21% of the CG residents. Conclusions Langer and Rodin concluded that giving people a greater sense of personal responsibility produces improvement. They also concluded that it might be possible to reverse/prevent elderly people suffering the negative effects of ageing by giving them the ability to make decisions and making them feel competent. Results: The dog did not even attempt to escape the potential or real electric shocks.
Conclusion: The dog had learned from the hammock that there was no point in trying to escape. They had acquired ‘learned helplessness’ Aim: To investigate learned helplessness as a cause for depression.
Method: Dogs were strapped in a hammock from which they could not escape and given electric shocks paired with a tone. Eventually they learned to fear the tone. Why? Seligman: Classical conditioning: Learned Helplessness
Method: Next they were strapped into a ‘Shuttlebox’ with two compartments. The dog can see over the fence into the second compartment and jump over easily. They rang the tone and gave the dog electric shocks.
Seligman (1975): Learned Helplessness Old people who had no choice about the nursing home they moved to had a higher morality rate than those who had the choice. Lab studies have shown that a sense of control reduces stress and pain -
Langer et al (1975) - found that hospital patients who felt a greater sense of control requested fewer pain relievers Also whether it increased I have missed key some points from these procedures - what are they?