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Introduction to Sociology

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franklin perez

on 28 January 2015

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Transcript of Introduction to Sociology

Introduction to Sociology
Global Perspective
Social Change
Karl Marx

Max Weber
Emile Durkhiem
Conclusion
What is Sociology?
Defined:
1. The study of human groups and societies, giving particular analysis to the industrialized world (as a point of reference).
2. Sociology is one discipline of a group of social sciences...The divisions between the various disciplines is not clear cut.
Studying Sociology
Neglected Sociologist
SOCIOLOGIST OF COLOR
W. E. B. Du Bois and the Atlanta School

- Double Consciousness

Frantz Fanon

- Auto-colonialism

FEMINIST THEORIST
Marian Weber

-Largely Responsible for finishing and publishing Max Weber's work

Harriet Martineu

-Macro-Micro Sociology; Analyzed how structural forces impact family, marriage, religion,

Ida B Wells


Modern Theories
1) Classical
-Enlightenment/Industrial Revolutionary periods
-Eurocentric
-Masculinist
-highly theoretical

2)Contemporary
-20th century till present
-adaptive
- practical/contextual
-somewhat inclusive of non-Eurocentric/White/Masculine perspectives
Sociological Imagination
Theoretical Thinking
Macrosociology:
-Study of large-scale social interactions between nations, domestic political institutions, and socio-cultural institutions

Microsociology:
-The study of face to face/intimate interactions and the daily life of various peoples.
We have seen dramatic social changes in the past two centuries
1) Travel
2) Education
3) Marriage
4) Immigration/Migration
5) Housing and Residence
6) Industry





Theories and Theoretical Framing:
what theories do we use
Conflict & Marxist(ism)(ian) theories
Durkhiemian Theories:
1) Social Organization/Solidarity/Efficacy
2) Split Labor Market
3) Deviance/Social Control/Anomie
Weberian Theories:
1) Rationalizations: Formal/Scientific; Technocratic; Objective/Subjective
2) Division of Labor
3)Authority: Traditional, Legal, and Charismatic

Marx Focused on:

1) theorizing how social change is influenced by economic factors
2) how society is organized around distribution of wealth, resources, and modes of production (ie capital)
Durkhiem Focused on:

Social Solidarity:
Mechanical vs. Organic

Social Morality:
Religious/Cultural vs Modernized

Social Constraint and Anomie:
He found that suicide is not totally related to psychological instability an illness; rather, it is related to extreme forms of social change. This change may cause a person to enter a state of social paralysis where one's understanding of his or her identity is completely changed
Weber Focused on:

1) Rationalization: Cultural Production
-ie How do we produce cultural norms.
-Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

2) Bureaucracy/Division of Labor
A)How social institutions become so highly specialized that they no longer function in the way they were intended to.
B)How certain groups of people are designated to work in fields/industries.

3) Authority and Leadership:
a) Traditional/Cultural: Power passed down by blood or cultural practices.
b) Legal: Political or Judicial: President or Supreme Court Justice.
c) Charismatic: Social Justice Leaders (ie Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Cesar Chavez, Jane Fonda, Angela Davis, Harvey Milk, etc)


Symbols are socially constructed

We give certain symbols meanings and power

Symbols include:
a) Language
b) Objects
c) Gestures
d) Ideas


Functionalism
Symbolic Interactionism
Based upon normal functions of a society

Society is based on a series of functions and is dependent on these to survive
(disrupt in function=chaos)

terms:
Manifest Function: Consequences one is conscious of that follow any particular action
Latent Function: Consequences one is unconscious of following a particular action
Marxism and Class conflict
Feminism and Feminist Theory
Society is Organized around competition for resources

All social issues related to unequal distribution of wealth and power

Small upper class holds all political power
-ie 1%

Huge lower class remains subordinate until capitalism is no longer sustainable

Instability leads to class warfare and social upheaval
or
REVOLUTION!!!!!!!!!!!
Critical theory related to marxist analysis

Argues that our society is organized around masculinity, patriarchy, and heteronormativity

Feminist theorist and scholars focus on unequal power relations between men and women; differences in power between straight and LGBQTIPS identifying people
1. Sociologist look beyond "common sense" understandings of human realities

2. We are interested in understanding how history, culture, political power influence human behavior
Sociological Questions
1)Empirical

2)Experimental

3)Comparative

4)Developmental

5)Theoretical


Societal History and Personal Biography are
INEXORABLY
interconnected
-what does this mean?

Sociology is not about the routine process of acquiring knowledge; we use a "Beginner's Mind" or "Investigative Perspective" to understand human behavior and social interactions

Sociologist try to break free from COMMON SENSE understandings about human behavior and societal organization

-What is a sociologist view of coffee from the reading?
The Research Process

Define the problem
what's going on or what do you want to study (research questions)
Review the literature
who has done this type of study before? What did they find?
Design a research strategy
Ethical considerations
Collect and analyze data
Report the findings
Research Aproahes/Methods

Qualitative
1) Ethnography (participant observations and interviews)
2) Interviews: individual and focus groups
3) Nonintrusive observations

Mixed
surveys: handout, telephone, or online

Quantitative
Statistical based analysis: demographics, income, educational attainment
Class Activity
Demographic data about the class:

1)How do folks racially identify:
(NHW,NHB,HL, AAS,PPI, Other)

2) What is the classes socio-economic make up: (upper class, middle class, working class, poor)

3) What is sexual make-up of the class:
(male, female, other, intersex)

4) What is the education generational background of the class
(1st in the family to go to college, sibling in college/graduated, parents graduated college [2nd generation], parents and grandparents went to college [3rd generation])



What did we learn?
1) What Sociology is
2) Who are some of original sociological theorist
3) What is the sociological research process
4) How to conduct a class based survey and what are some of the demographical characteristics of of our class.


Questions?
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