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Transcript of SUSTAINABILITY
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" This analysis is concerned with the prospects of a sustainable City, including its environments, its society and its economy. With the national economy gradually shifting from predominatly agricultural based to industrial, the resultant socio-economic stresses and strains have caused the city of Hyderabad to suffer from shattered socio-cultural life, environmental and aesthetic deterioration and and escalated cost of living. To accommodate the radial and multi-dimensional activities the city has grown from a 174 sq km radius... ...to a 2000 sq km radius. This haphazard growth has degraded natural resources SUSTAINABILITY AND
POPULATION GROWTH due to a network of problems balancing and perpetuating each other. CARRYING CAPACITY - Is the scale of economy that natural systems can sustain. It is the maximum level of human activities that can be sustained by the urban environment without causing irreversible damage and serious degradation. Hyderabad topped the list of cities in terms of its growth rate:
1927 - 0.5 million
1970 - 2.0 million
1980 - 3.0 million
1990 - 4.2 million
2012 - 6.8 million Agricultural production having arithmetic growth and population increasing at an exponential rate may cause
famine, conflict and disease. Instead of an S-Shaped
growth curve we may expect a J-Shaped curve with
an inevitable crash. This point of crisis is
known as a Malthusian catastrophe. DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITIONS When examining the trajectory which the Hyderabad population is following we see that as in most low GDP countries there is a high fertility factor and consequently, a youthful age pyramid. We see a growth rate of 4.7%, almost double of the desired rate of 2.1%. We need to implement birth control
policies, following the trend of China. This would help us achieve
more of a wedge or cup shaped population pyramid like
Germany, which has a more sustainable and mature
age structure. THE SOCIAL STATUS OF WOMEN ALSO CONTRIBUTES TO BIRTH RATES AND FERTILITY. THERE IS A VERY STRONG CORRELATION BETWEEN INCREASED EDUCATION FOR WOMEN AND DECREASED FERTILITY. THIS COULD ALSO BE AN INDIRECT EFFECT: THEY ARE BEING EDUCATED INSTEAD OF RAISING A FAMILY OR THEY ARE MORE VALUABLE AND HENCE LAST LONGER IN THE WORKFORCE SO TEND TO HAVE CHILDREN AT A LATER AGE. NEVERTHELESS, WE SEE A VERY CLEAR TREND.
HYDERABAD HAS A SEX RATIO OF 943 FEMALES FOR EVERY 1000 MALES. IT IS RIDDEN WITH CASES OF FEMALE INFANTICIDE.
WOMEN FACE ISSUES OF SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AND ARE CAUGHT IN A POVERTY TRAP. THIS IS A VICIOUS CIRCLE OF POVERTY, ILLITERACY, UNEMPLOYMENT AND HIGH FERTILITY RATES. TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS The "tragedy of the commons" concept brought forward by Garrett Hardin in 1968, advocates that the system inevitably leads to its destruction as individual interests differ from group interest. For example, while any one person's contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is infinitesimal... ...we may not be hurting ourselves very much, plus we are getting the benefits of using cheap fossil fuels.... TIP OF THE ICEBERG ...BUT COLLECTIVELY THIS MEANS WE ARE CHANGING THE CLIMATE
WITH GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS EXPLORING POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS TO THE TRAGEDY OF COMMONS Personal actions has its limitations.
Firstly, because it is not psychologically healthy to force people to act against their own interest.
Secondly, it discriminates against people with a good conscience. Thus, external regulation is mandatory, normally this would mean government intervention. However, governments need to be non corrupt and have good sources of information to properly enforce the power to issue regulations. For example: the government of Hyderabad is too weak and corrupt to effectively enforce any of it's laws to prevent overuse of forest resources. Under such a regime there is a lot of illegal and unreported
activity and we see deforestation occurs nonetheless. At a small scale, one potential solution would be property rights. There is evidence of how owing to an inherent sense of ownership, property rights give us incentives to follow trends of sustainability. Hyderabad has seen a sharp increase in temperature ever since the 1950s on account of increased industrialization and urbanization Linear growth along the main roads is one of the major factors for an exponential increase in automobiles. On an average daily 11 lakh liters of petrol is consumed. The Pollution Control Board and recently amended Motor Vehicles Act has failed to check this urban menace. The citizens of Hyderabad need to switch to diesel cars owing to their superior fuel efficiency. IMPACT OF THE
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Industrialization requires fossil fuel energy sources which emit greenhouse gases:-
CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC, HCFC, CH3CCl2, SF6, CF4, C2F6. Besides causing acid rain, we have witnessed an adverse effect on local climate due irregular precipitation levels... increasing dependency on irrigation ...and water-stress
on aquifers ENERGY OVERVIEW Most of the energy that we get today comes from fossil fuels. This has two main issues:-
1. Burning of 2. Fossil Fuels
fossil fuels are a finite
leads to resource
climate change Most of the renewable energy comes
from biomass ... ...which takes up land that
has other potential use... ...and indirectly, this can spike up food prices. Inflation in food prices hits those living below the poverty line the hardest. BIOMASS SOLUTION - WOMEN EMPOWERMENT!!! OIL Also, Biomass has a very low 'EROEI':-
ENERGY RETURNED ON ENERGY INVESTED and has been known incorrectly
termed as the 'green gold' ...considering biofuel crops are also putting
an unbearable strain on local water supply. The best case scenario would be to make biofuels from native grasses that are carbon negative on lands that are unsuitable for growing crops. AWARENESS PROGRAMS ARE ESSENTIAL TO EDUCATE THE PEOPLE ON HOW OIL PRICES HAVE A TRICKLE DOWN EFFECT ON THE REST OF THE ECONOMY. CURRENTLY ONLY 30% OF THE CITY'S COMMUTERS USE PUBLIC TRANSPORT. Oil comprises of 94% of all energy used in transport in Hyderabad. Peak Oil, sometimes known as Hubbert's peak, is the point at which there is maximum extraction... India has already experienced peak oil. There has long been a battle between environmental groups and oil extractors. The price of oil as long for a long time in the 20th century but has recently spiked.
Even though this makes oil more economically feasible to extract and we are projected to have reserves lasting another 40 years of supporting our transport systems...this ignores the impact on climate change. COAL AND GAS Coal continues to dominate Hyderabad's energy portfolio as they it energy dense and can be easily stored. These characteristics make it the cheapest source of producing electricity. However, it produces more carbon dioxide per unit of energy than any other energy source. It also produces acid rain, heavy metal contamination, mercury, ash and sludge. Natural gas produces
significantly less CO2 and is one of the cleanest burning fuels today. New fracking technologies have eased the extraction process making it more economically viable as well. NUCLEAR Nuclear energy is a
which doesn't produce
much carbon dioxide
and can be scaled up
easily. It's relatively
cheaper than other
technologies. Would, you like
a nuclear power
plant in your
backyard? The answer in most
cases is "No!"
Metaphorically, backyard extends to one's entire community.
NIMBY - Not In My Backyard! Nuclear power is not yet feasible in the city of Hyderabad but is still being promoted by the government against the wishes of the people. Due to opposition from local groups, voiced activists and science experts, it's virtually impossible to find a storage place
for the waste. RENEWABLE ENERGY HYDRO-ELECTRICITY IS CURRENTLY THE SECOND LARGEST SOURCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN HYDERABAD AFTER BIO-MASS AND CONSITUTES AN ENCOURAGING 25% OF OUR TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY OF POWER UTILITIES. THE PRICE OF SOLAR CELLS IN HYDERBAD HAS WITNESSED A STEADY REDUCTION OVER THE PAST DECADE AND IN THE LAST 5 YEARS THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF SOLAR ELECTRICITY INCREASED BY A FACTOR OF 10. WIND ENERGY IS CURRENTLY AN UNTAPPED RESOURCE MAINLY AS IT IS UNRELIABLE AS THE BASELOAD FOR ENERGY GRIDS CONSERVATION SOLUTIONS POTENTIAL ENERGY Traditional electric lighting
uses incandescent bulbs. Switching to LED can save 8 times more energy! Infact, there are lots of ways we could reduce our energy footprints and also reduce the amount of money we spend. For instance, increasing the energy efficiency of cooling systems or adding insulation to buildings would result in a net gain, both financially and environmentally. We need to follow the trend of
cities like California, and
implement strict residential
energy use standards. WATER TRENDS The most cost effective way to feed this large population is to over extract water from aquifers, especially in Hyderabad wherein ground water sources are not properly priced or regulated. The extraction rate is much higher than the natural recharge flux. Due to water stress in the coming decades we will see impoverishment which can contribute to civil and social unrest. Hyderabad faces water shortages frequently. Reasons include industrial growth, urbanizationm lack of coherent water policy and neglect of water sources like River Musi and Hussein Sagar. Hyderabad has a large population and intensive agriculture, which is an enormous user of water. River Musi used to meet the drinking water needs of the residents. It is now a pool of industrial effluents and solid wastage.
The river used to serve most of the old city water needs is in the process of becoming extinct due to land grabbers. A bus complex was constructed in the midst of the River Musi and total discharge of untreated municipal waters is around 500 million liters per day. The proposed National River Conservation Plan for Musi River with 5 new STPs will add a capacity of 593 MLD. The project envisages to intercept and divert the dry weather flows from storm water drains flowing to the River Musi and to transmit the same by conveying mains of 33 kms. Long to the Sewage Treatment Plants at 45 places and let out the treated effluents into the River Musi. POTENTIAL SOLUTION HUSSAINSAGAR LAKE: CASE STUDY Hussainsagar is a 400 year old lake originally built to serve the purpose of public water supply and irrigation. Due to haphazard industrialization, unplanned growth and gross negligence, Hussainsagar is now a toxic reservoir. About 25 years ago a pipeline known as 'K-Main' was laid for the purpose of transferring industrial effluents to the downstream of the lake. Over the years due to lack of maintenance, the pipeline got corroded and developed huge leaking points. In addition, the annual ritual of immersing Ganesha God Idols is done on a massive scale. Consequently, it has become a dead water body. Fish have high content of heavy metals in their brains, Mercury levels were 152 mg per Kg of sediment and visibility is barely 6cm. RIVER MUSI: CASE STUDY It is observed that there is a marked increase in total annual run-off in the area from 3.92 M.Cum to 5.22 M.Cum under pre and post urbanization conditions. Hyderabad's vulnerability to flash floods has increased on account of:-
1) Absence of storm water drains
2) Increased impervious cement structures and pavements 3) Reduced infiltration capacity
4) Accelerated surface storm water run off
5) Loss in rain water storage capacity
6) Disturbed natural drainage
7) Loss of tree and ground cover AGRICULTURAL LIMITS For Hyderabad in the 1950s there was an enormous increases in the average yield per hectare of land. The original green revolution used drought resistant hybrids with more disease resistant genes as well as nitrogen ready crops that responded well to fertilizers. Additionally, we saw an improvement in irrigation and use of pesticides. Green revolution critiques are firstly, that a lot of fertilizer is derived from fossil fuel inputs and secondly, monocultures have damaged local ecosystems. In recent years there has been a plateau in yields. The solutions that worked for the Green revolution will not be as effective over the coming decades as we have hit a natural limit. GREEN
CRITIQUE 2012 1950 POTENTIAL SOLUTION: GMOs Genetically modified organisms might be the green revolution future. However, owing to the precautionary principle, GMOs have been opposed on ethical grounds. We need to keep in mind that in its strongest form, the precautionary principle is paralyzing and prevents development as it does not weigh the costs and benefits. Hyderabad is currently on the path of becoming a biodiversity hotspot. The city is losing species at an accelerated rate in largely due to habitat destruction and fragmentation. Other effects that have caused damages to ecosystems include invasive species, local climate change and over-exploitation of natural resources. About half of Hyderbad's natural vegetation has been destroyed.One way to measure the cost of biodiversity loss is through ecosystem services. Pledging an additional $50 million over the next two years for biodiversity conservation in India, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in his inaugural address at Hyderabad Biodiversity Convention 2012, said, "There is a realization that ecosystem services form a much higher percentage of the "GDP of the Poor" than of classical GDP calculations. Biodiversity based livelihood options form the basis of rural survival in many parts of the world. Living at the periphery of subsistence, the poor are the most at risk from biodiversity loss. They should not also be the ones to bear the cost of biodiversity conservation while the benefits are enjoyed by society at large." Though, he lamented, "In recent years, it has become increasingly difficult to find common ground on environmental issues." The economist Prime Minister, in a startling revelation, said, "Over 1000 cases of biopiracy have been identified (in India) and over 105 claims withdrawn or cancelled by patent offices." The last century has seen at least four animal species go extinct from India: The iconic Indian Cheetah, Lesser Indian Rhino, Pink-headed Duck and the Himalayan Mountain Quail. These were lost to human greed and habitat loss. Today, another 929 species are listed as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), up from 648 in 2004. India's rank in the global shame list of nations struggling to protect its species diversity is 7, next to China. However, the country is making an efforts to protect the life giving biodiversity. Today, 4.8 per cent of the geographical area falls under protected areas and the only sustainable hope for the survival of wild tigers in the world is in the forests of India, with 1706 adult tigers roaming all over India in 2011 - up from 1411 in 2006. According to the Environment Ministry, the country currently spends about $2 billion on biodiversity. Some results are showing the IUCN has this week removed the Lion Tailed Macaque from its list of 25 most endangered primates as its numbers have improved. SUSTAINABILITY METRICS Environmentalism needs to spread beyond political and social movements and enter the realm of the corporate world. In some cases this may lead to "greenwashing" but corporations need to go beyond their PR image, streamline their services and create less waste. Hyderabad's Hi-tech city is implementing the concept of "green buildings" which are designed to:-
1) Efficiently use energy, water, and other resources
2) Protect occupant health and improve employee productivity
3)Reduce waste, pollution and environmental degradation SOLUTION: Active Implementation of the 3 DALY Rules:-
1. Renewable resources need to be harvested at a sustainable rate.
2.Develop alternatives to replace non-renewable resources at the rate they are being lost.
3. The amount of pollution we create must be matched by the environment's ability to assimilate it. HYDERABAD'S ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT: A relative analysis ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT:-
The measure of our consumption
of ecological services. The world average is 2.2 hectares per person.
Hyderabad has an ecological footprint of 0.4 hectares per person. CARBON FOOTPRINT- Total
greenhouse gas emissions
caused directly or indirectly
by a person, organization,
event or product. We see India, including Hyderabad, is well below the World average The water footprint of national consumption is defined as the total amount of fresh water that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the nation. As per the above map, we see that India, including Hyderabad, is below the world average. CONCLUSION: We need to keep in mind that although our environmental footprints are relatively low as compared to world standards, the lifestyle of the inhabitants of Hyderabad is still not on a path towards sustainable development when analyzed in isolation. Hyderabad needs to view it's resources through the green lens of sustainability using a combination of innovation and legislation to make it a true ECO-CITY of the future. Thank
You!!! The above sustainability tree is an analysis of whether the inhabitants of the city of Hyderabad reflect a behavior in line with the concept of sustainable development. It reflects a complex web of intricately interlinked socio-economic and enivronmental issues that impact sustainability and attempts to identify areas of improvement and potential solutions. Carrying Capacity Exponential Growth
Stage Transitional Stage Plateau Stage Carrying Capacity Inevitable Crash Exponential Growth Population Time Population Time SUSTAINABLE GROWTH CURVE UNSUSTAINABLE GROWTH CURVE HYDERABAD AGRICULTURAL TIMELINE In a bid to establish and strengthen the natural gas distribution network in the State, the government has constituted a separate committee for Greater Hyderabad on the lines of the single window clearance committees formed at the district and State levels. LIST OF IMAGE SOURCES