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Transcript of READING COMPREHENSION
2009/2010 Heinemann LLI Data Collection Project
On average, participating students exhibited 8 months of reading growth after 4.2months of intervention.
Post LLI intervention, 68% of the sample students' instructional levels increased at least three reading levels and 12.5% of the sample raised their reading levels by seven or more levels.
A subset of 1,118 students who received LLI as designed, experienced 10 months of reading growth in 5.3 months.
Of this subset, 79.2% were within two reading levels of grade-level expectations and 64.8% were at or within one level of grade-level expectation
2011 LLI Efficacy Study on Urban Schools by CREP
Studied LLI materials for K-2
LLI positively impacted students in kindergarten and first grade; however, fewer positive results were observed in second grade.
Students receiving high fidelity LLI instruction showed the most significant gains.
Overall, participating teachers reported a positive impact on their students' literacy achievement and attitudes as well as strengthening their core reading instruction
Original Leveled Books—6 copies of each
6 Novels—6 copies of each
Lesson Guide Volumes 1, 2 & 3
Prompting Guides, Part 1 & 2
Professional Development & Tutorial DVDs
Tri-Fold Fabric Bags
Lesson Book Folders
Plastic Labels 1-150
Word Magnet Tiles
Write on/Wipe off Marker
Red -- Levels L - Q
Gold -- Levels O - T
Purple -- Levels R - W
Teal -- Levels U - Z (unreleased)
LLI is intended to provide intensive support to struggling readers to quickly bring students up to grade-level competency through explicit direct instruction in 45 minute lessons, 5 days a week for small groups of 4 students or less.
Each lesson includes systematic, intentional vocabulary development
Each kit contains original, high-interest titles (60% nonfiction / 40% fiction) and a novel study to support sustained reading of literature
Soar to Success
by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Leveled Literacy Intervention
Research on Soar to Success
National Study (1996/1997) conducted by the author using fourth-grade students at 13 sites throughout the country
Program formerly called Project SUCCESS
Students reported high motivation throughout study
Students showed significant gains in oral reading based on their successful application of phonics/decoding skills and the reading strategies and the many opportunities for oral reading.
A greater proportion of SUCCESS participants were reading on level as compared to the control group in this study.
The literature, repetition of vocabulary and skills instruction, and fast-paced lessons kept students excited about reading and contributed to their growth in reading.
Cooper, J. David, (1999). Soar to Success: The Intermediate Intervention Program. Houghton-Mifflin Company.
Cooper, J.D., Boschken, I., McWilliams, J., & Pistochini, L. (1997). Project Success: A Study of the Effectiveness of an Intervention Program Designed To Accelerate Reading for Struggling Readers in the Upper Grades. Unpublished.
Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. S. (2009). Leveled Literacy Intervention. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Ransford-Kaldon, C. R., Flynt, E. S., Ross, C. L., Franceschini L., Zoblotsky, T., & Huang,Y. (2011). Implementation of effective intervention: An empirical study to evaluate the efficacy of Fountas & Pinnell’s Leveled Literacy Intervention Program (LLI), 2009–2010. Memphis, TN: University of Memphis Center for Research in Educational Policy.
Rosenshine, B., & Meister, C. (1994). Reciprocal teaching: A review of the research. Review of educational research, 64(4), 479-530.
Reading comprehension research indicates that direct, explicit instruction is essential to enable students to master challenging
texts. The National Reading Panel (2000) highlighted the role of the teacher in delivering strategy instruction:
Strategic reading requires strategic teaching, which involves putting teachers in positions where their minds are the most valued educational resource. Skilled reading is constructive reading, and the activities of the reader matter (4-49).
A primary goal of reading instruction is to develop readers who are capable of reading and responding critically to a variety of texts. To become accomplished readers, students must have opportunities to acquire a repertoire of strategies that enable them to cope with materials of increasing
difficulty as they progress through school.
Critical readers demonstrate an array of interpretive skills including the ability to explain details, infer, link personal experience to text, make connections
within and across texts, and form conclusions based on different perspectives. Teachers who teach for meaning and emphasize critical thinking skills in their lessons provide opportunities for students
to become independent readers.
Because of the complexity of teaching comprehension strategies, most experts recommend applying a gradual release of responsibility. The gradual release of responsibility begins with explicit instruction by the teacher, who over time releases more responsibility to the students for assuming ownership of strategy application. (Duke & Taylor 2013)
Research on Reciprocal Teaching
WWC reviewed six studies of reciprocal teaching which included 316 students from grades 4–12, ranging in age from 9 to 21.
The study schools were located in Alaska, California, South Carolina, the midwestern United States, Canada, and New Zealand.
Based on these six studies, the WWC considers the extent of evidence for reciprocal teaching on adolescent learners to be medium to large for comprehension.
In other research, when standardized tests were used, the reciprocal teaching treatment was significantly superior to the control treatment in 2 of 11 studies.
Reciprocal teaching is an interactive instructional practice that aims to improve students’ reading comprehension by teaching strategies to obtain meaning from a text. The teacher and students take turns leading a dialogue regarding segments of the text. Students discuss with their teacher how to apply four comprehension strategies—
generating questions, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting
—to passages of text.
Each level includes:
18 trade books (7 copies of each title)
Instructional Posters (graphic organizers)
Student Guide (7 copies)
Staff Development Video
Canvas Tote Bag
$644.50 each grade level
Kits available for grades K through 8
Activities for Teaching Comprehension
Oral Recitation Lesson
Story Map Instruction
Students are taught the main components of narrative text such as: important characters, setting, main problem and plot development, and theme. Typically, students use a graphic organizer to compile these story components.
While reading an information text, students will highlight or record keywords. Students will use these keywords to summarize the main idea of the text. This can easily be used while reading in the content areas.
Students are asked to record the main idea of a passage or a paragraph along with the key details that support the main idea.
By constructing mental pictures of what they are reading and closely
studying text illustrations, students increase their reading
Students participate in multiple readings of a text over a few days. This process concludes with students reading the story aloud using expression which allows the story to come alive.
their prior knowledge of a specific topic to help them comprehend the content of a story
or article on the same topic. The ability to connect new information to prior knowledge allows students to gain a deeper comprehension of the text and make inferences.
Encouraging students to generate questions before, during, and after reading will deepen their comprehension of the text and promote further reading.
Students act as the teach in small-group settings. Students guide reading discussions focused on summarizing, question generation, clarifying, and predicting.
LLI Lesson 139
3:00 - 5