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U.S. Government

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Maria Reyes

on 15 November 2016

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Transcript of U.S. Government

U.S. Government
American
Government

Freedom/ Liberty.....Order or Individualism.....Equality
Freedom/ Liberty (freedom to define own purpose and means)
Order/ Individualism (reaching the highest potential)
Equality (having to do with equal claim)

U.S. Psychological Map
What is the role of government?
Philosophical and Historical Perspective
Contextual framework
Contextual Framework
A Representative Democracy
What is the Role of Government?
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan
(1651)

Hedonistic drive; all against all

Man acts according to a certain natural law (Newton's 1st law of motion)

Government's role is to control man, reduce discord, contract enforcement, allowing the pursuit of pleasure
John Locke
Second Treatise of Government
(1690)

We are all rational & driven by betterment, progress; Government's role is to facilitate progress and serve as a third neutral party with limited power that can be overthrown
Jean-Jaques Rousseau
Of The Social Contract
(1762)

We are driven by self-preservation and empathy; evils are created by society; Government is us and needs to be created by true moral agents; humans in a social context; we provide for the development of the virtuoso, deliberation, and operation. .
Absolute Power
SON
Hedonism
Social Contract
Tabula Rasa
SON
Progress
Social Contract
Tacit Agreement
Social Contract
SON
Dumb Brutes
Baron De Montesquieu
Spirit of the Laws (1748)

Every man that has power is led to abuse it and therefore measures of prevention are needed.
Dissonant Harmony
Checks and Balance
Despotic Power
Democratic Republic
Ideologies
Liberal
Generous, open, reasonable, capable of living in freedom
19th Century: change in class structure through the free market
20th Reform liberalism; government intervention in the market
21st Government involvement in social justice; the good society

Conservative
Maintaining status quo, afraid of change or risk, values tradition and custom.
19th Century: preservation of aristocracy
20th Maintaining faith in the market as self regulating
21st anti-regulation for the market; defense of tradition and religion
Political Theories
Anarchism
Libertarianism
Totalitarianism
Economic Theories
Laissez Faire
Capitalism
Socialism
Anarchism
Means "without a chief"
Aims at a utopia/ egalitarian


Examples:
Diogenes the Cynic (Classic Greece)
Leo Tolstoy
Thomas Paine
Libertarianism
Free will, free markets, personal responsibility
Examples: Ron Paul, Rand Paul, Bob Barr,
Totalitarianism
Hannah Arendt,
The Origins of Totalitarianism
(1951)
Total control by the state often by coercion and repression
Is a hypothetical situation where one imagines the absence of government and society to reveal or understand the role of government and members of the society
State of Nature
"During the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that conditions called war; and such a war, as if of every man, against every man”
– Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)
"...he that will not give just occasion to think that all government in the world is the product only of force and violence, and that men live together by no other rules but that of beasts, where the strongest carries it...must of necessity find another rise of government, another original of political power...”
(John Locke, Second Treatise 1690)

“What man acquires in civil state, moral liberty, which alone makes him truly master of himself”
Jean-Jacques Rousseau in The Social Contract
"In republican governments, men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments: in the former, because they are everything; in the latter, because they are nothing.“
Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws
The Historical Perspective
Declaration of Independence
Articles of Confederation
The Constitutional Convention
Federalist / Anti-Federalists (arguments in support and fear of a constitution)

July 4, 1776
July 9, 1781 (Ratified)
The Articles of Confederation
The Declaration of Independence
Philadelphia
May 14 1787
The Constitutional Convention
Federalist Papers
October 1787 - May 1788
For the Independent Journal
Editorials/ Opinion Columns
85 Articles
Exercise in political persuasion
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
Publius
Holistic Approach to the power and weakness of the constitution
Maintaining Order, Providing Public Good, Promoting Equality
Aim = ownership of identification, means of purpose, choose or not to reach my highest potential, and equal claim.
Aristotle
Nicomachean Ethics
350 B.C.
Alasdair MacIntyre
After Virtue
1981
"eudaimonia"
"eudemonia"
Structure limits
Economically conservative and socially liberal
From coercive state to voluntary association
Benito Mussolini - totalitario - 1920's
French Approach
“Let them be” “Hands off”
No Tariffs
No monopoly control
No subsidies
No regulation

Adam Smith (1723-1790)
Theory of Moral Sentiments
(1759).
An Enquiry into the Causes and Nature of the Wealth of Nations
(1776)

Type of economic system.

Main features
Free market (Unregulated)
Private property (Ownership)
Surplus (Capital for reinvestment)

The Market
Contractual Exchange
Self-Regulated
Competition
Collective redistribution and allocation of benefits, services, or wealth

Rooted in Karl Marx
Communist Manifesto
(1848) and
Das Kapital
(1867)

Different from Communism
Reform Liberalism
We should have faith

Any of various theories or systems of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned collectively or by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy.
Philosophical Perspective
WHO GOVERNS?
http://www.colbertnation.com/the-colbert-report-videos/186456/september-29-2008/the-word---ye-of-little-faith
Democratic Republic
Declaration of War!
Drafted 1775/ John Dickinson
Confederacy
A lose alliance of independent states for economic and defense purposes
Powers
unicameral legislature (1 representative per state)
no executive or court
no power to tax or regulate trade
unanimous consent required for everything

Business Leaders
Lawyers
Landowners
The Enlightenment
To "fix" the Articles/
Tell the people
The U. S Constitution
Opposed by states with strong economies
Article I
Article II
Article III
Article IV
Article V
Article VI
Promise of a Bill of Rights
The Congress
Tax
Raise Army and Navy
Declare War
“Necessary and Proper” Clause
Powers
House originates all Appropriations Bills
Senate ratifies Treaties and Appointments
Impeachment
Create Lower Courts
Checks
The Executive
Commander-in-Chief
Appointment and Treaty
Appoint Supreme Court Justices
Veto
Powers
Checks
The Judiciary
Interpretation of Law
Judicial Review
Marbury v. Madison
1803
Full Faith and Credit Clause (i.e. if you’re licensed to drive in one state, you can drive in all states)
Procedure for Adding New States
Privileges and Immunities of citizens & Extradition
Guarantee of
Republican
form of Government for each state (i.e. Texas cannot have a monarchy)
Proposed by 2/3 of both chambers in Congress
OR
2/3 vote of State Conventions, called by congress by request of state legislature.

Ratified by ¾ of States or state conventions

Amending the Constitution
Supremacy Clause
The Constitution and the Federal Government established by it are the supreme law of the land; no state laws may supersede that of the Federal Government
Federalists
Strong National
Group of wealthy, land owners, educated
Controlled (not everyone is capable of making choices)
Policies favorable to trade/
protective tariffs (taxes on imports)
National bank
National Defense
Friends with Britain and not France
John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and George Washington
Avoid problems of the Articles of Confederation
Anti-Federalists
State Gov.
Limited National Gov. (accepted failure of AoC but did not believe the solution was a strong Fed. Gov)
Not a national bank but State banks
Government control by ordinary citizens
Farmers, artisans, skilled workers
Free Trade/ limit protective tariffs
Love France not fans of Britain
Insist on a Bill of rights (limit the power of National Gov.)
Thomas Jefferson, George mason (cut off my arm instead of ratification), Patrick Henry (give me liberty or give me death)

Representative Democracy
Elitism
The Semi Sovereign People (1960), Elmer E. Schattsneider
Empathetic
About Power
Procedural
Substantive
Pluralism
Majority
Autocracy Oligarchy Democracy Dictatorship
Ancient Greece
Capitalism
Socialism
Who should participate?
How much should each vote count?
How many votes are needed?
This is representation not specified
functions in the interest of the governed outside established procedures
Benefits:
Avoids tyrannical majority
Bill of Rights
Social Rights (Justice, Economic)
Ideology/ Moral Agency
Minority
Benefits
Establishes criteria
Supports majority rule
Centralization
Globalization

CONTROL OF POWER
http://thomas.loc.gov/home/histdox/fedpapers.html
The Congress
Divided Power / Bicameral
Functions
Lawmaking
Representation
Service / Casework
Oversight
Public-Education
Conflict Resolution
Enumerated Powers
Article 1, Sec 8
Implied Powers
Necessary and Proper
The Great Compromise
Summer of 1787
Senate and House
State & Population Representation
Bill through both houses
HOUSE
Larger (435 members)
Shorter term (2 years)
Less flexible rules
Narrower constituency
Policy specialists
Less prestige
More expeditious floor debate
Less reliance on staff
Less media coverage
More partisan
SENATE
Smaller (100 members)
Longer term (6 years)
More flexible rules
Broader constituency
Policy generalists
More prestige
Less expeditious floor debate
More reliance on staff
More media coverage
Less partisan
Size
Rules
Prestige
25
35
Reapportionment

Committees
Appropriation Bills
House - brings charges
Senate & SCJ - tries & 2/3 decide
Impeachment
House
Approval of Appointments
Senate
Approval of Treaties
2/3 Senate
Examples
Article 1 Section 8 Clause 12
"raise and support armies"
allocation of funds for missile testing
Means adequate to its end
Article 1 Section 8 Clause 1
"to regulate commerce"
regulation of minimum wage
Article 1 Section 8 Clause 1
"provide... for the general welfare"
make laws regarding discrimination on employment
McCulloch v. Maryland 1819
Gridlock
http://www.opensecrets.org/bigpicture/reelect.php
Standing Committees
Joint Committees
Select Committees
Conference Committees
Division of Labor
http://www.govtrack.us/congress/committees/
Seniority
Leadership
Senate Leadership
President Joe Biden (D)
President Pro Tempore Orrin, Hatch (R)
Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R)
Majority Whip John Cornyn (R)
Minority Leader Harry Reid (D)
Minority Whip Richard Durbin (R)

House Leadership
Speaker Paul D. Ryan (R)
Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)
Majority Whip Steve Scalise (R)
Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D)
Minority Whip Steny Hoyer (D)
Reapportionment Act of 1929
Keeps # of Representatives at 435
Committees on Rules and Procedures
Filibustering / Cloture
60
The Executive
Article I I
At least 35 years old
Natural born Citizen
U.S. Residence for at least 14 years
How to become the President
Nomination
Majority of Electoral Votes
House Election if not majority
The Duties of the President are to execute the law.
Made up of President, vice-president and executive offices
President's Role
Head of State
Chief Executive
Commander-in-Chief
Chief Diplomat
Chief Legislator
Chief of Party
4 yr term
2 term limit
Presidential Succession Act 1947
25th Amendment 1967
12th Amendment 1804
http://realclearpolitics.com/epolls/other/president_obama_job_approval-1044.html
Executive Order
Emergency Powers
http://www.gpoaccess.gov/index.html
Executive Privilege
Bureaucracy
Part of the executive
Necessity of modern society
Policy implementation
What is it?
Bureaucracy
Max Weber
Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft
(The Theory of social and Economic Organizations)
(1922).
Fixed and official jurisdiction
Hierarchy
Written documentation
Management should have expert training
Full working capacity of the official
General rules which need to be stable, exhaustive, and can be learned.

Rational
Predictable
Reliable
Professional
Patronage System v. Merit System
Spoil
Practice of giving jobs as a reward
through political party affiliation
family ties
friendship
favor exchanges
Job assignment based on merit
examination
systematic evaluation of job performance
competitive professionalization
1883
1826
Mugwumps
Jacksonian Era
Pendleton Act
Bureaucracy
Formal and Kitchen
Independent Executive Agencies
Independent Regulatory Agencies
The Cabinet
FEC
EPA
CIA
Federal Reserve Board
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Hatch Act 1939
The Judiciary
Article III
An independent weak branch
Marbury V. Madison
Federalist Paper 78
1788
"Least Dangerous"
"no influence over either sword or purse"
Hamilton
1803
8 Justices & 1 Chief justice
Nominated by the President
Confirmed by the Senate
Highest Judicial Body
Alexis de Tocqueville
Democracy in America 1835, 1840
Life Tenure
Senior status, retire, removed
Jurisdiction
Original
U.S. v. State; State v. State; Citizens of different states; involving an ambassador or foreign minister; or consul
Appellate
Conservative, Moderate, Liberal
http://www.targetpointconsulting.com/scotusscores-labels.html
No qualifications
James F. Byrnes
Process
At the discretion of the court
Judiciary Act 1789
Writs of Mandamus
1st Monday of October - June or July the next year
Sittings and Recesses
Judicial Review
1. Petition for review, for a writs of certiorari
2. Conference
3. Petitioner v. Respondent
4. Grants writs of certiorari
5. Oral arguments are presented
6. Decision (majority vote) Quorum (6)
7. Presentation of Opinions
Judicial Activism
Article I
The Structure of our Government
First Section
Second Section
Federalism
Unitary System
Confederate
+
=
Federal
Why?
Strong central gov. (Order)
Strong state government (freedom)
It allows for many political subcultures
Why Not?
Powerful states
Inequalities across states
Division/ Factions
James Madison
Federalist Paper 10
"Great and Aggregate"
James Madison
Federalist Paper 51
Checks and Balances
The Federal System
Authority Divided
Written Constitution
Central and Constituent Government
Advantages
Allows for diversity
Diffuses power
More access points
Protects individual rights
Foster transformation - through experimentation and innovation
It is ideal for large countries
Disadvantages
National unity becomes difficult
State governments may resist national policy
May allow inequality (economic, social, racial)
Law enforcement and Justice are not equal
Smaller units may lack expertise and money
Powers
National
Enumerated (specifically granted by the Article 1 Section 8 of U.S. Constitution)
Implied (Necessary and proper clause or Elastic Clause; article 1 Section 8/ McCulloch v. Maryland 1819)
Inherent (Sovereignty; mandate; etc)
State
10th Amendment (Not delegated to the National government are delegated to the state)
Taxing of exports
Foreign policy nor coining money
Supremacy Clause
Third neutral party for the states
full faith and credit
privileges and immunities
extradition
compacts
Theories and Metaphors
Dual Federalism
Cooperative Federalism
Morton Grodzins
The American System: A new View of the Government of the U.S. (1966)
Terry Sandford (Former Governor of N.C.)
Storm over the States (1967)
1789-1945
1945-1969
New Federalism
Too Big to Fail
National Crisis
Judicial Interpretations
Expansions of Grants in Aid
Professionalization of the System
Federalism Transformed
Beginning
Civil War
Jacksonian Era
The New Deal
Supremacy Clause (Article VI)
7 Amendments to the U.S.
13th prohibits slavery
14th guarantees Due Process and Equal Protection of the law
15th states may not deny the vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
17th - direct election of Senators rather than by state legislators
19th may not deny the right to vote on the basis of sex
24th forbids poll taxes in national elections
26th sets the minimum voting age at 18.

Limits on State Power
Globalization
The Great Compromise
Expressed powers (national- the power to regulate interstate commerce)
Exclusive powers (national- making treaties, conducting war)
Concurrent Powers (both state & national - the power to tax, borrow)
Reserved Powers (state – law enforcement, public schools, elections)
Implied powers (national - by nature "necessary and proper clause”)
The Federal System
Political Participants
Political Parties
Public Opinion
Interests Groups
The Media

Political Parties
System/ Schemata/ Framework
Majority Rule
Winner Takes All
Duality
Two Party System
Democrats
vs.
Republican
Functions
Recruit, Sponsor and Nominate candidates
Structure voting process and choice
Shape public policy (clarify, influence, focus)
Coordinate the action of government
Structure/ Organization
Permanent
Temporary
Four Main Organizations
National Convention (nominate candidates for president)
National Committee
Congressional Party Conference
Congressional Campaign Committee
Party Machine
Patronage
Decentralization
Party History in the U.S.
Pre-Party
Factions
Federalist vs. Anti-Federalists
1787-1817
Federalists vs. Democratic-Republic
Washington spoke against the party system 1796 in his farewell address,
“The Baneful Effects”
Montesquieu
Madiso
Fed. Paper 10
Alexander Hamilton vs. Thomas Jefferson
Resulted in Two Party Administration
Both Caucus
Aaron Burr vs. Charles Pinckney
Contested Election Resulted in
12th Amendment
1800
1804
The Era of Good Feeling
Federalist Party Dissolved by 1817
1817-1825
1820 James Monroe Elected No Party Competition
Democratic - Republican Party
The Election of 1824
1st election to count popular vote
1828-1854
Democrats v. Whigs
1st Democrat Candidate
Andrew Jackson
Democrats
Weaker Fed. Gov
Pro-Slavery
Manifest Destiny
Represented the Common People
Whigs
Stronger Fed. Gov.
Anti-Slavery to a degree
Support of Business
Democrats v. Republicans
Whig = Republican
Abolitionists
Democrats Divided
North and South
Over Slavery
4th Party
Constitutional Union
1877 Republican Start to Move Right
Social Welfare:
-- health care
-- Social Security
Minority Rights:
-- women’s reproductive rights
-- gay rights
-- minority rights

Small Government:
-- cut social spending
-- states’ rights
-- tax cuts
Social Conservatism:
-- evangelical Christianity

Two Conservative Parties
1877-1912
Republicans
Big business
Strong military
No concern for civil rights
No aide to farmers
Democrats
Evangelical Christians
State's Rights
Anti-Civil Rights
No aide to farmers
The Progressive Party
1912
New Deal Democrats
Conservatism 1920-1933
Liberals to the Closet 1945-1960
Lyndon Johnson & The New Left
Reagan's Conservatism
Interests Groups
An interests group is an organizes group of people with common values, and ideas that make demands on political institutions in order to achieve certain goals that they are unable to achieve on their own.
Encyclopedia of Associations
Explosion since 1950
Competing Interests
62%
Educated
Higher Income
Higher Status
Higher standards of Living
Men
Older
Anglo
More groups/ more active
"Mischief of Factions"/ Pluralism
James Madison, Federalist Paper #10, 1787
own ends at the expense of the welfare of the nation
Special Interests
Political Action Committees PAC
Who Joins
Why Join
Social Benefits
Personal Identification
Cause or objectives
Elitism
Elmer E. Schattsneider
The Semi Sovereign People (1960)
F. Gregory Hayden
"Policymaking Network of the Iron-Triangle Subgovernment for Licensing Hazardous Waste Facilities(2002)
C. Wright Mills
The Power of the Elite (1956)
Hyperpluralism
Single-Issue groups
Power
Size
Geographical Area
Financial Resources
Reputation
Leadership
Banks
Oil Companies
Agricultural
Communication
Big Business
Professional Groups
Teachers
Doctors
TBA
TARA
TBA
Lawyers
TMA
TEXPAC
TSTA
TEA
Public Interest
ADAPTA
Sierra Club
CPPP
Environment
Public Protection
TTLA
Minorities
Labor
LULAC
NAACP
CWA
AFSCME
Louder Voice
Lobbying
Organized and strategic effort of influence
Protests
Activities
Public Opinion
Personal Contact
Drafting/ Implementing Policy
Coalitions/ Networks
Research
Texas Ethics Commission
http://www.texastribune.org/library/data/lobbying/
Is it Worth it?
http://www.ethics.state.tx.us/guides/LOBBY_guide.htm
Public Opinion
Our Government rests on public opinion
Abraham Lincoln
Government by the people for the people
Will of the People
Foundation of Democracy
Realignment
Change in voting patterns that occur after a critical election

Critical election that produces a sharp change in the existing pattern of party loyalties among groups or voters
Majoritarian
Pluralistic
Aggregate of beliefs and attitudes
History
1800 - Straw polls
1930's Developing of accurate measuring developed
POST WWII
Going Public
The Harrisburg Pennsylvania 1824
George Gallup, Elmo Roper and others
University of Michigan founded Survey Research Center
JFK 1st president to use polling
Polling
Sampling
Can vary over time
Place boundaries on policy
Can be constructed on matters outside the public’s direct experience
Guide government on responsiveness
At times even be ignored

Political Socialization
Is a complex process by which people acquire political values
Sources
Family and the social environment
Educational system
Peer group
Opinion leaders
Media
Social and Political Events
Demographic Influence
Education
Economic Status
Religious Influence: Denomination
Religious Influence: Commitment
Race and Ethnicity
Gender
Geography
Age
Party Identification
Political Ideology
Perception of Candidates
Issues Preferences
Measuring Public Opinion
The Media
The Political
Aristotle
Nicomachean Ethics (350 B.C)
The Village
Humans are social and political animals whose motive is happiness (eudemonia) which requires a community.
Hannah Arendt
The Human Condition (1958)
Vita activa v. vita contemplativa/ private -public
Action is the most important element of the human condition (labor, work, and action).
Camilla Stivers
Governance in Dark Times (2001)
Importance of the political, information, and open conversation (reduction of emotion to reason)

Mass Media
Written
Spoken
Broadcasted
Television
Radio
Music
Movies
Advertising
Newspapers
Magazines
Internet
Gatekeepers/ Watchdogs
Provides information
It helps accountability
At times has forced transparency (Watergate)
Promotes communication
Helps control power
Functions
Entertainment/ Cultural Glue
Original intent
Information
The latest happenings (health, weather, finance, politics, fashion, music, movies, etc)
Political Awareness / Public Forum
Overseer of the political system
Education
To educate the masses at a very little cost
Public announcements
Used by public officials and or agencies of all levels to make announcements.
Advertisement/ Profit
All business use the media to promote products
Shapes public policy
Seeks to remain independent and objective
Influences
Agenda Building
Priority setting
Create a climate for political action
May play a reactive role, mirroring society

Downs, Anthony, Up and Down with Ecology-the Issue-Attention Cycle , Public Interest, (1972:Summer)
Dream Act in Texas
Abortion
Affordable Care Act
Electoral Process
Media-centered campaigns
Sound bites
Party platform = link between voters and government officials
Draw attention through issues: advertisement, news reports, editorials, press conferences, etc
Horserace Coverage
Campaigning for Television
Division/ Negative Campaign
Ethics & Regulations
Newspapers
Newspapers emerged as political tools, financed by parties and advocating party causes. They were mainly read by the elite.
1775 -When the Revolutionary War broke out there were about 37 Newspapers (Mainly weekly)
1880- There were about 9604 (Daily and Weekly)
1950s - Newspapers were already declining (competition amongst themselves)
1960s – Further decline (competition with Radio and Televison)
2000s – Further decline (competition with internet)
Newsweek going fully electronic

Magazines
Radio
Fireside Chats
1920
1933, FDR
1937
1st Coast to Coast
1922
Representative Vincent M. Brennan
Television
1940's
23 Stations
Hearing Senate Committees
1950's Army-McCarthy Hearings
1973 Watergate Hearings
House - 1978
Senate - 1986
House Television System
(Thomas - Tip - O'Neill)
Shared Experience
Radio
Pearl Harbor (December 7th 1941) within 8 hours 90% of the population knew about the Japanese Attack
Radio & Television
Assassination of President John F. Kennedy within 1 hour 94% of the population knew about the event
Television
911 Actually been experienced as they are unfolding
Internet
Arab Spring (2011)Populous movements around the middle east
The World has Changed
Social Media Important to Understanding Constituents
Facebook
64%
Twitter
42%
You Tube
34%
Makes more responsive politicians
62%
Enables Politicians to Reach People
88%
Technological based social interactions where the public share and discuss information about each other, their lives, and point of views on religion, sexuality, organizations, and politics.
This expression is in the form of words, pictures, audio, and videos (blogs, wikis, virtual worlds, tagging, digital story telling, podcasts, etc.)

http://owni.eu/2011/11/25/infographic-media-consolidation-the-illusion-of-choice/
Who owns the radio waves
Federal Radio Act (1927)
Federal Communication Act (1934)
Created the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) which is an independent regulatory (five members)
Telecommunications Act (1996)
Eliminated limits on ownership
Regulation of Content
1st Amendment
FCC

Direct vs. Indirect
The Great Compromise
The Connecticut or Sherman Compromise
1787
Descriptive vs. Substantive
Descriptive Characteristics
Advocacy on behalf of groups
Congress must be a "portrait of the people at large in miniature" John Adams 1776
Empowers Minorities
To a Certain point
American National Election Studies
Delegate vs. Trusteee
Allows for overall representation
7
9
Redistricting
Every 10 yrs
Voting Rights Act
Massachusetts, 1812
Not Clear Yet?
http://txredistricting.org/
http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/redist/redist.html
Rep. Henry Cuellar
28th Congressional Dist.
Senators
John Cornyn &
Ted Cruz
What is public policy?
A general plan of action, designed by government to solve a problem
Types of Policy
Distributive policies
Representative John Murtha’s “pork”
Redistributional policies
Seattle’s proposed espresso tax
Alabama’s proposed redesign of state tax code
Regulation
Mexican trucks traveling in U.S.

Public Policy Tools
Incentives (Encourage Behavior, Charity as tax exceptions)
Disincentives (Discourage Behavior, Sin Tax)
Direct provision of services (Gov. Services)
Setting rules (Regulation, balance in the market place)
Tools can be combined
Policies not static: means, goals, and situations change

Making Policy
1. Issue Definition under government responsibility
2. Formal plans developed to address issue
(occur in all three branches, incremental, and not always enacted).
3. Implementation (involves bargaining).
4. Policy Evaluation (outcomes, cost-effectiveness)
Harold Laswell
Politics: Who gets What, When, How
1936
Legislation
EO
Local Ordinance
Court Orders
Separation of Powers
Fragmented
Coordination
Issue Networks
/
Hugh Heclo, 1978
"Issue Network and the Executive Establishment"
Economic
Environmental
Foreign Policy
Global Policy
Education
Prison
Health and Human Services
Regressive Tax
vs. Progressive Tax
Equity vs. Quality
Local & State Taxes
Property Taxes
Measurement of Success
Crowded Prisons
Privatization
Death Penalty
Political Action Commission of Private Prison
19th Century Monroe Doctrine (Isolationism - 1823)
WWI “To make the world safe for Democracy” (Moralist)
WWII U.S. as Superpower
Cold War (Containment/ Holding Soviet Power in check)
NATO 1941
Arms Race/ Space Race
Nixon Doctrine (Intervention where it makes a real difference and is considered our interest- Triangular Diplomacy)
Reagan Peace Through Strength, Star Wars
Enlargement and Engagement (Increasing Democracies with Market economies and membership to NATO)
Bush Doctrine – Preemptive Action (our right to self-defense)

Policy Making
http://www.house.gov/
https://www.senate.gov/
http://www.house.gov/leadership/
https://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/senators/a_three_sections_with_teasers/leadership.htm
Up Dated 07.26.2016
House
Senate
http://www.house.gov/committees/
https://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/committees/d_three_sections_with_teasers/committees_home.htm
http://thedailyshow.cc.com/videos/xmvyio/commission--impossible
http://thedailyshow.cc.com/videos/8oq0a5/diplomat-buyers-club
http://www.gallup.com/home.aspx
http://www.npr.org/2014/04/03/298401923/npr-poll-obamacare-more-popular-than-president
vs
http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/obama_administration/daily_presidential_tracking_poll
sanctions, regulations, taxes and subsidies
Public Inactivity
For Trade and Defense
Annapolis Convention of 1786
In Maryland
Called to discuss trade &
conflict between states
George Washington / Hamilton
December 1791 (Ratified)
Bill of Rights
Start drafting it under the 1st Congress 1789
Not Absolute
Magna Carta, 1215
It establishes political freedom/ Powers to control state
Amendments
11. State immunity from lawsuits (1795)
12. Revising election process (1804)
13. Abolishing slavery (1865)
14. Equal Protection to all Citizens / Definition of Citizenship (1867)
15. Right to vote for all men (1870)
16. Income Tax (1913)
17. Direct Election of Senators (1913)
18. Prohibition (1919)
19. Right to vote for all women (1920)
20. Resets dates for beginning of Congressional and Presidential terms (1933)
21. Repeals the 18th Amendment (1933)
22. Limits Presidential terms to 2 (1951)
23. Gives Electoral Votes to DC (1961)
24. Repeals Poll Taxes (1964)
25. Establishes Presidential succession beyond VP; Allows President to temporarily step down; Allows Cabinet to remove President (1967)
26. Gives 18 yr old the right to vote
27. If Congress votes for a raise it becomes effective until the next election

22nd Amendment
President & Vice President Election
1800s Jefferson & Burr


Congress Retention Rate
Incumbency
http://one-simple-idea.com/CongressMakeUp_1855_2008.htm
What is government?
The means by which a society organizes itself and allocates authority in order to accomplish collective goals and provide benefits that the society as a whole needs (pg8)

This lesson was created with personal notes and the
American Government,
from Open Stax (https://openstax.org/details/american-government).
Government
The Prince
(1532) by Nicolo Machiavelli
Fear
Fear
Who Governs?
(1961) Robert Dahl
The Power of the Elite (1956), C. Wright Mills
The Wisdom of the Crowds (2004), James Surowiecki
Principles of Governance
Popular Sovereignty
This is the belief that the people are the source of governmental power. It establishes government by the consent of the people. This prevents absolute power and establishes representatives as the servants of the people. ~ Benjamin Franklin
Limited Government
This is the belief that there should be a restriction of power and functions of government through the law. It’s main purpose is to prevent tyrannical government. ~ James Madison and Thomas Jefferson
Separation of Power
This is the idea that fictionalizing power and function divides power, authority and function to prevent absolute power; tyrannical power. ~ John Rutledge & James Madison
Checks and Balance
This is the principle that allows power, function, and authority to give ability to the different factions or divisions to check on their actions. ~ Alexander Hamilton
Federalism
It is the relationship between the state and the national authority. ~ George Washington
Supremacy of the Law
It is the principle where government and citizens are subject to standing laws. This means that neither the individual nor the institution can be above one another, nor the law. ~ LJM Cooray
Article VII
"All within the state, none outside the state"
Safety
Public Goods
Power
“Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed, citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” ~ Margaret Mead
“When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.”
1st Constitution of the United States
Issues
Power of Central Government
Representation
How much and how (Election)
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows....
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their Offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their Services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in Office.
Weak Branch
This article covers prior debt, the supremacy clause and oaths of office.
Full transcript