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CHS Anatomy P5 Nervous System

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on 15 March 2014

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Transcript of CHS Anatomy P5 Nervous System




Nerve Impulses travel over PERIPHERAL NERVES to CNS
Once the nerve impulses reach CNS, they are brought together to create sensations, add to memory, or make perceptions. (defined as the
INTEGRATIVE FUNCTION
)
Use
MOTOR FUNCTIONS
to employ peripheral neurons to carry nerve impulses from the CNS to effectors outside the nervous system (such as muscles)
The Nervous System
FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Responsible for detecting
INTERNAL
and
EXTERNAL
changes of the body and environment
Uses sensory receptors at the ends of peripheral neurons to detect changes (defined as the
SENSORY FUNCTION
)
Converts gathered information into
NERVE IMPULSES
CENTRAL VS. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
PATH OF A NERVE IMPULSE
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
THE NEURON
THE BRAIN
PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
RECOVERY
time after fight or flight
Heart rate, breathing, etc. return to
NORMAL
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Fight or flight response
ELEVATE
heart rate, increase breathing rate, etc.
A SYNAPSE
{ the bond between two neurons }
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
SOMATIC SENSES
TOUCH & PRESSURE
TEMPERATURE
PAIN
Tissue damage
STIMULATES
pain receptors, which are free nerve endings
Visceral Pain -
"PHANTOM LIMB"
TASTE VS. SMELL
Connects brain and spinal cord to
BODY
& shares information between the two
RECEPTORS
&
EFFECTORS
in negative feedback mechanisms
Consists of
BRAIN
and
SPINAL CORD
Negative feedback mechanism
CONTROL CENTER
Syd, Sam, & Jess
Both taste & smell are the
PERCEPTION OF CHEMICALS IN THE AIR OR IN OUR FOOD
Taste +
SMELL
=
FLAVOR
* Neurons are not actually connected. Separated by a gap
called the
SYNAPTIC CLEFT
.
FACTS ABOUT SYNAPSES
Can occur between an axon & a dendrite or an axon & a cell body
PRESYNAPTIC NEURON
: Neuron carrying impulse into the synapse (sender)
POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON
: Neuron receiving impulse at the synapse (receiver)
SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
: Process of transferring impulse from presynaptic neuron to postsynaptic neuron
SYNAPTIC VESICLE
: sac carrying neurotransmitters; contained in a synaptic knob at the distal end of axons. *only present in axon terminals; not dendrites*
When an impulse reaches the synaptic knob, the vesicles release neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft and react with receptors on the postsynaptic neuron (like a chain reaction)
FRONTAL LOBE
REASONING
Motor skills
Language
CEREBELLUM
Higher level functions
2 centers
Interpret
ARRIVING
sensory impulses
Initiate
VOLUNTARY
muscle movements
Store memory
INTELLIGENCE
Houses intelligence & personality
BRAINSTEM
AUDITORY
reflexes
VISUAL
reflexes
Breathing
Control
CARDIAC
centers
Control
VASOMOTOR
centers
Control
RESPIRATORY
centers
PARIETAL LOBE
TEMPORAL LOBE
Sensory receptors:
Taste =
TASTE BUDS
Smell =
OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS
OCCIPITAL LOBE
DIENCEPHALON
INSIDE
of brain
Major responsibilities include...
Pain
Touch
Temperature
Maintains
HOMEOSTASIS
Heart
RATE
Hunger
Sleep
classified based on their effect on postsynaptic membranes:
EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS
: increase postsynaptic membrane permeability to sodium ions, which can trigger nerve impulses and bring membrane closer to threshold
INHIBITORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS
: lessen the chance of a nerve impulse occurring, opposite of excitatory.
Responsible for processing what we
SEE
Receptors:
FREE NERVE ENDINGS
- sensations in epithelial cells
MEISSNER'S CORPUSCLES
- slight touch
PACINIAN CORPUSCLES
- heavy pressure
SENSORY
information
Touch
PRESSURE
Pain
AUDITORY
responsibilities
INTERPRET
sound
Language
Formation of
MEMORIES
DAMAGE
Memory loss, speech & language problems
Free nerve endings
Warm receptors -
77 TO 113 DEGREES
Cold receptors -
50 TO 68 DEGREES
THANKS FOR WATCHING :)
DISEASES & DISORDERS
Severity of damage depends on nerve
LOCATION
&
TYPE
AUTONOMIC
nerve damage symptoms
Dry eyes & mouth
Inability to sense chest pain
Too much or too little sweating
Light headedness
MOTOR
nerve damage symptoms
Weakness
Muscle atrophy
Twitching
Paralysis
SENSORY
nerve damage symptoms
Problems with awareness
Numbness
Sensitivity or pain
http://users.tamuk.edu/kfjab02/Biology/AnimalPhysiology/B3408%20Systems/BIOL%203408%20Chapter%2011%20Neurons.htm
http://www.brainfacts.org/sensing-thinking-behaving/senses-and-perception/articles/2012/taste-and-smell/
http://scienceblogs.com/purepedantry/2007/03/06/neuron-to-glia-synapse-on-axon/
http://askabiologist.asu.edu/parts-nervous-system
http://www.medtrng.com/anatomy%20lesson/bhp13.htm
http://creepypasta.wikia.com/wiki/Memory_Striders
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:african_lion_resting_at_the_entebee_zoo_in_uganda.jpg
http://www.salon.com/2012/09/01/touring_the_brain/
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