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IB Psychology Paper 3

Qualitative Research Methods (student project)

C Weaver

on 2 October 2014

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Transcript of IB Psychology Paper 3

Learning Outcomes
Question 1
Question 2
Answering Paper 3 Questions
Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of qualitative research methodology
Usually involves explaining
Why did they use that technique?
What technique did they use in the study?
Uh.. what's methodology?
An organized, documented set of procedures and guidelines for one or more phases of research

So that means: it's the rules that regulate a kind of research!
Methods That Might Be Used
Focus groups
Narrative interviews
Participant observation
Non-participant observation
Naturalistic observation
Overt/Covert observation
Case Studies
Intrinsic vs.Instrumental
Descriptive vs. Explanatory
Case Studies:
Opportunity to investigate a new phenomenon
Insight into social processes
Stimulates new reseach opportunities
Opportunity to contradict established theory
Allows for elaboration
Less researcher bias
Quick & convenient
Natural settings
Very detailed
Avoids researcher bias because they seek to understand social processes
Combines "etic" and "emic" dimension
subjective participant perspective
(allows personal perspective)

objective observer perspective
(scientific observer perspective)
Relating back to the original scenario
You're given the
prompt, so use it!
be sure to refer back to the stimulus material given

explain how the experiment used the technique
Question 3
Usually involves
analyzing a psychological process
Explain or discuss how something could have been used or why it was used
Important Terms?
Researcher Bias
Participant Expectations
Participant Expectations
Researcher Bias
Command Terms
1.) Analyse – Break down to be able to highlight the key structure
2.)Apply- using your knowledge relevant to the presented problems in order to solve them.
3.)Compare- Give examples showing similarities between different items in the information.
4.)Compare and Contrast- give examples of similarities and differences between two or more items.
5.) Contrast- Give examples of differences between two or more items.
6.) Define- the exact and accurate meaning behind a word, phrase, and concept.
7.) Describe- A detailed run through of something.
8.) Discuss- An opportunity to review a topic as a group including arguments, factors, or hypotheses
9.)Distinguish- Clarify the problems between two or more concepts
10.) Evaluate- Make a statement by comparing the strengths and limitations.
11.)Examine- Looking at a conflict at another point of view to reveal the assumptions and relationships
12.) Explain- Giving clear examples accounting for all the possible causes.
13.)Outline- Giving a short and brief summary of your topic
14.) State- Giving clear answers to a question without explaining or presenting how you came to that answer.
15.)To what extent-Contemplating the both sides of an argument or concept. Understanding opinions and conclusions to be presented when your able to back them with to create a good argument.
Behaviors observed are assumed to represent larger population
Not always accurate for each study
The researcher is aware of his or her own contribution in the research process
Personal- How personal factors influence results
Epistemological- If a different approach, design, or less limited research question would change results
Limit researcher bias:
The researchers own feelings may influence the case study
Potential risk for researcher bias in all case studies
Researcher bias can influence how data is collected and analyzed
However, it can be controlled through reflexivity
Usually involves discussing
the effects of using a
certain research method
Case Studies:

of participants
May be affected negatively

Clear understanding
of the topic
Signs of discomfort

Case Studies:

Stimulates new
Insight into social processes in a group
Possibility to investigate cases not set up in

of people and
their lives
research from
experiments and

First-hand information in naturally occuring situations
What are the ethical
issues when using
certain research
Are there any advantages or benefits from using certain research methods?
Are there any disadvantages from using certain research methods?
Case Studies:

Researcher bias
Memory distortions and effects of social desirability

Time consuming
Doesn't explore opinions and beliefs
Limited number of settings
Researcher bias
Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis.
Identifies key themes, concepts and categories
Coding- placing information into specific categories
Goal: gain insight into how an individual perceives information
Semi-structured interviews
Strategies are : Reading transcripts and identifying themes
Combining different research methods in a study
Goal: collect richer data through a combination of various methods
Also known as Reactivity
Participants alter the way they behave in a study because they are aware of being observed
Placebo and Hawthorne effects
Explain why a single method of qualitative research is inadequate for drawing conclusions
How could a method be used in the study and the effect of using that method?
How to tackle question 3
Be familiar with key terms and concepts
Read and reread the question, pay attention to exactly what the question is asking
Crane, John, and Jette Hannibal. IB Diploma Programme: Psychology Course Companion. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009. Print.

Weaver, Coulter. Professional Interview. February 2012.
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