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Transcript of Public Policy
How should the American public policy be in regards to oil-dependency?
There has been a long debate as to what will happen with the environment concerning oil. With the recent climate changes researchers have been trying to find answers to their questions about what might occur due to the excessive oil use caused by the Industrial Revolution. Many laws and regulations have been put into place to help the environment in different ways.
Clean Air Act (CAA)
Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing economy have gone hand in hand. Today the Clean Air Act continues to cut pollution and protect the health of American families and workers. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies – technologies in which the United States has become a global market leader.
Oil Pollution Act (OPA)
In 1990 the government was dealing with many oil spills, as result the Oil Pollution Act came into existence. The OPA mainly deals with oil spills. It requires oil storage facilities and vessels to submit to the Federal government plans detailing how they will respond to large discharges. EPA has published regulations for aboveground storage facilities; the Coast Guard has done so for oil tankers.
Moral Based Argument
Decay of animal, plant, plankton remains
4000 years ago
pits and riverbanks
China, bamboo well drills
1755 first petroleum found in U.S.
1859 First U.S. oil drill, Pennsylvania
1896 First offshore drill
1901 "Spindletop" oil field in Texas
World with Oil
Knowledge of Proponents
Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)
Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)
Republicans for environmental protection
Knowledge of Opponents
Competitive Enterprise Institution (CEI)
Americans for Prosperity Foundation
For the problem at hand we came up with multiple solutions. One of those solutions we decided was too radical of a change for the population of America and the other solution wasn't efficient enough to be able to function as America's main source of energy.
One alternative is to replace all forms of non-renewable oils from our country.
However, we feel this solution is much too radical
These issues are stronger now than ever, we're constantly increasing the need for oil at an alarming rate. Millions of barrels of oil a day are used and this number increases by nearly a million each year.
We need to fix this gluttony of oil demand now.
National Energy Policy Development Group (NEPDG)
In conclusion, the idea of this entire policy is mainly to reduce our dependency on a non-sustainable resource. While this is hard to do it is however not impossible.
In order to create a more stable environment for future generations; our grand kids and even their kids, we need to work on this issue today.
87.421 Million barrels of oil consumed daily worldwide
31.909 Billion yearly just in 2011
Consumption per capita
Darker colors mean more consumption
Gray is no data
A second alternative that we could try to rely on to achieve the results we want is to somehow replace a majority of the industrial businesses that use oil as a means to supply energy to use a different energy instead.
Global Warming and Environment
Do More and use Less
Dependency, gas prices
New energies reduce consumption
Less consumption saves oil and money
Lessen OPEC's price manipulation
easy oil is disappearing
burned oil traps heat in atmosphere
Oil has the worst emissions
greener is cleaner
Fossil Fuels are Best For Now
Oil is reliable
Oil avoids supply crisis
Emissions are high but don't cause warming
temperature isn't rising
Problems With New Energies
Better energy doesn't need advertisement
Better available, already used
Will new energy keep income/employment
Can't fit current needs
Expensive new alternate cars
Alternate cars are driven more
1968 OPEC formed
1969, Pacific Ocean spill
1973 OPEC oil embargo, 1st energy crisis
1979 Iranian revolution, 2nd energy crisis
current avg. $3.33 per gal
2013 90.38 million barrels
1970,1977, 1990 Clean Air Act
1990 Oil Pollution Act
2009 Recovery and Reinvestment Act
54.5mpg cars, light trucks, models 2025
Why is this important?
Pollution is a big part of the world today and it is only getting worse.
Amount of energy demand that we have as a nation is way too high and we won't be able to sustain this demand in the future.
Our goal is to reduce the amount of consumption of oil by the American people. To do this we need to tackle the largest offender to oil misuse, transportation.
We will educate the public in the plans we intend to implement. We will create advertisements and interest groups that help get the word out. We will give the public the skills and understanding to make a difference in their communities.
We will strategically place activist groups in favor of our bill and ideas to help conserve oil to convince their peers and people around them to save oil. The more groups we have trying to convince the people around them of the good in our solution, the better chance we have of making this a growing achievement.
One of our goals is to help the common person to reduce the amount of oil that they use per day.
In order to do this we need an increase of funding to the R&D department for transportation in hopes to further advance the rate in which technology of flex-fuel cars is improving.
Through our bill a punishment would be directed to the manufacturers who didn't meet the new regulations. This punishment would be a fine of 15% of the profit the manufacturers made in that year.
As positive reinforcement we will allow all hybrid and electric card owners to purchase a discount card for all alternative fueling stations. This will encourage the people to use less oil.
To create an environment that is capable to provide for these cars we will put many advancements into place. We will provide public electric fueling stations in large cities as well as other alternative fuel stations. For big cities that already have public transport we will move to try to make these modes of transportation more energy efficient and implement flex-fuel vehicles in large scale cities.
The US uses a large part of the world's oil, nearly doubling that of China. Most of the oil that we use goes towards transportation.
About 70% of all oil used in the US is from transportation.
There are on average about 208 million licensed drivers in America. Spending about $2000 a year and with the increase to the gas tax the funding for our bill would be about 12 billion dollars a year.
About 120 billion dollars for the ten year period this bill would be acting in.
We will propose a bill that will require all car manufacturing companies to have 33% of their 2018 model year cars to incorporate new fuel technologies besides gasoline or diesel. These new technologies will increase fuel economy of vehicles. It's a push to slowly make all new vehicles more efficient and reach the 54.5mpg standard set for 2025. If the bill is passed 2015 it will give car companies 3 years to prepare. Full responsibility falls upon the manufacturers to meet the standard.
In order to fund this solution we would make an increase to the gas tax. Increasing it by 10 cents per gallon.
This funding would go towards the R&D department as well as building alternative fuel stations for cars.
Cylinder Deactivation, 7.5%
Integrated Starter, 8%
Variable valve timing, 5%
Continuously variable transmission, 6%
As mentioned before car exhausts let out a large amount of pollutants. One of the more popular ones that people know is CO2.
This policy helps reduce the amount of CO2 emissions the United States would put out.
We need to start the process of bettering the environment. We feel that our solution is the best solution to help the environment and the economy. By tackling the biggest offender, transportation, we will accomplish this.
The more we use oil, the more of a danger it is to ourselves and the environment.