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Industrial Revolution and The Romantic Era

Seven Aspects of Culture for the Industrial Revolution and The Romantic Era

Carla Mae Phillips

on 13 October 2011

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Transcript of Industrial Revolution and The Romantic Era

The Industrial Revolution & The Romantic Era
was the biggest
historical and economic influence on 19th century
-Revolted against the order and
intellectual control of the Enlightenment and Neoclassicism
Romanticism was the most
important cultural movement
of the 19th century.
Industrial Revolution:
Mass Production of
Material Goods

Begins in England,
mid-18th Century,
and continues into
the 19th century

The move of production
from homes to factories
provides the leisure time
needed for Romanticism
to flourish.
-Got inspiration from examination of inner feelings,
emotions, imagination & the culture of the MiddleAges
-Said feelings were superior to reasoning
-Was interested in the individual rather than entire society
-Was interested in the common people and language
-Was aware of the Industrial Revolution's destructiveness and championed reform movements
-Destested war and had a love of nature
-Included a Gothic strand with its interest in the supernatural and the past
Romantic Era begins when William Wordsworth and
Samuel Taylor Coleridge publish Lyrical Ballads (1798)
-Poetry is the highest work of the imagination
William Wordsworth
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Most Famous Romantic Poet
English man who was in France during the Revolution; Disgusted by war he retreated to a cottage in the Lake District of England and found solace in nature; became friends with Coleridge
Wrote that poetry is the "spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions"
Believed the goal of the poet is to choose common incidents/situations and make them interesting
"Lines Composed a Few Miles AboveTintern Abbey" was last poem in Lyrical Ballads and it shows the Romantic ideal of nature providing solace and spirituality
Most Imaginative Romantic Poet
Ran away at age 7; nightmares the rest of his life
Planned a utopian settlement in Pennsylvania, couldn't get the money
Had an addiction to opium and alcohol
Married one Sara (Fricker); Loved another Sara (Hutchinson)
Kept notebooks
Got a grant from Wedgwoods to write
"The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" was first poem in Lyrical Ballads
"Rime" is based upon a friend's dream and Wordsworth helped him with the idea of including a crime at sea
Other Romantic Writers & Works You Should Know
1. John Keats' "Ode on a Grecian Urn"
2. Percy Bysshe Shelley's "Autumn: A Dirge"
3. William Blake's "The Tyger"
4. Lord Byron, George Gordon's "She Walks in Beauty"
5. Robert Burns' "To a Louse"
6. Johann Geothe's "The Erl-King
7. Heinrich Heine's "The Loreley"
-Both parents die while he is young
-Studied medicine; became a poet
-Suffered and died from TB; Shelley wrote his elegy
-Bright Star (movie) about his love for Fanny Brawne
-Poetry was full of hope, despite his bleak life
-Expelled from Oxford for a pamphlet on Atheism
-Messed up love life: eloped at 19 with a 16-year-
old and then abandons her three years later; at 22
he runs away with Mary Wolstonecraft's daughter, named Mary also; after first wife drowns herself, he marries Mary, then has affair with her stepsister
-Dies of "accidental" drowning while boating; had
two books in his pockets: Sophocles and Keats
-Byron was at his funeral; burned on a pyre
-Dirges are songs about death; his poem is about
the death/end of the year
-Age 10, started training
to be an artist
-Illustrated most of
his poems
-Happily married
-Saw world as continuation of his imagination
-Made common thing "imagination itself" with poetry
-"The Tyger" questioned who could make a creature such as the tiger
-His ode was inspired a Greek vase in the British museum
-Scottish farmer and heavy drinker
-The world created over
300 folk songs from his
lyric poetry
-His "Auld Lang Syne" is
the New Year's Eve song
-Chose to write in lower
Scottish dialect even though he was well educated so that his poetry would appeal to the common people
-"To a Louse" describes a woman at church with lice and makes a point that it would be nice if we could see ourselves as others see us
-German who studied law,
but became a poet
-Managed a court theater for
German duke
-Wrote dramatic poems based on legends
-"The Erl-King" is about an evil goblin who haunts the Black Forest in Germany
-German Jew who was subject to prejudice
-Expelled from college for fighting in a duel
-Had an incurable disease of the spine;
spent his last 8 years in bed dictating poems
-His last words were "Paper! Pencil!"
-"The Loreley" was inspired by a rejection from
his cousin Amelia and was inspired by the legend of a maiden who haunts the rocks of the Rhine River
Nature is the
source of uniting
God with the
human soul (Asian)
Agreed with Panthesism and said knowledge gained by way of intuition transcended or
by logic
The constant aim and
tendency of every
improvement in machinery
is to supersede human
labor altogether
*Neomedievalism-Revival of Middle Ages/Gothic style
-Restoration of castles and churches with Gothic arches, spires and towers
-Examples are Augustus Pugin's British Houses of Parliament and
James Renwick’s Smithsonian Castle .
-Moves from court to theater; dancing on toes begins
-Prima Ballerina Maria Togliona perfected dancing on toes
and arabesque (one leg extended back with arms stretched
to make longest body line possible)
-Took inspiration from legends and fairy tales
-Considered vulgar when it was introduced
-Most popular dance of the 19th century
-Uses a three count and box step

-Program music is instrumental music that has pictorial or literary content
-French composer Hector Berlioz added a fifth movement to symphonies
-He enlarged the symphony orchestra to 150 musicians;
-He was called the "apostle of bigness" when he imagined an orchestra with 400 musicians
-He used Goethe's Faust as the literary content for his Symphonie Fantastique which is the account of an opium induced dream where a man meets a girl at a ball, then argues with her in the country and dreams of murdering her, then is marched up the scaffold to his own execution, and a final witches' Sabbath scene.

-United poetry and music; used Goethe and Heine poems as lyrics
-Clara Schumann's lieder (songs) were for piano and voice
-She was more talented than her husband Robert; but gave up her
career for his and had 8 babies in 16 years
-"Die Lorelei" using Heine's lyrics

-Virtuosos were composers who wrote music that only individuals with incredible technical skills could play
-Polish composer, Frederic Chopin, was a virtuoso and
a satirical writer; he was friends with Berlioz and
Delecroix (see visual arts section)
-His Etude in G-flat Major, Opus 10, No. 5 challenged
pianists to play very rapidly on the black keys

-Combined music,
dance,stage sets
and costumes
-Italian Giuseppe
Verdi was the
leading composer
-Aida was the story of an
Egyptian prince and Ethiopian
princess held as slaves. It was
commissioned for the opening
of the Suez canal.
-Horses, chariots and elephants were used in Aida

-Barbizon School in France was the first to take easles outdoors
-John Constable tried to paint ordinary and humble subjects (like Romantic poets wrote about the common)
-In Wivenhoe Park, Essex he has elevated
a very common subject, cattle grazing

-Landscapes with mysterious, ominous scenes of decaying castles or wintry graveyards, etc.
-German Caspar David Friedrich's Two Men
Contemplating the Moon has two men on edge
of steep cliff with an uprooted tree and glowing moon

-Spanish artist, Francisco
Goya, used paintings to
show the horrors of war
(French occupation of
Spain under Napoleon)
in The Third of May, 1808:
The Execution of the Defenders
of Madrid
-French painter Theodore Gericault used a news story as inspiration for The Raft of the Medusa
-The crew of the Medusa are shown as heroic combatants against nature
-When the Medusa wrecks, over 100 passengers get onto a raft that cannot hold all of them. Most died and some resorted to cannibalism before being rescued
-Painting uses double triangle and dark/light motifs
-French painter Eugene Delacroix said that
the imagination was paramount in the life of
the artist
-His painting Liberty Leading the People was a response to the Revolution of 1830 when Charles
X repressed voting rights and freedom of the press
-It has been compared to David's Oath of the Horatii because of the call for heroic action
-Lady Liberty (center) leads rebels with flag and bayonet; served as model for Statue of Liberty
-She champions middle class (frock coat guy), lower class (boy with pistols), and radical minorities (saber guy on left)
-Pictorial license with nudity
French troops execute Spanish citizens
-Triangle of light; central figure shows personal courage in face of human brutality; faceless enemy executioners
with emotional defenders
-He made fun of Wordsworth and Coleridge with satire
-His dad was a sea captain, psychopath and womanizer
-He became famous for poetry at 24 and fans/critics made his private life public; he had an affair with his half-sister and had pro-French politics
-Friends with Percy
and Mary Shelley
-Handsome, club-foot,
eating disorder, athlete
-A Byronic hero is a handsome, brooding character who is
passionate about causes
-His poem was inspired by a woman he met at a party--his cousin's wife
German Art Songs
Programmatic Symphonies
Piano Virtuoso
Romantic Opera
Landscape Paintings
Gothic Landscapes
Heroic Theme Paintings
Full transcript