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Miscellaneous Inorganic Pharmaceutical Agents
Transcript of Miscellaneous Inorganic Pharmaceutical Agents
OXYGEN USP 31
Fractional Distillation of Liquid Air (Linde Process)
- air is liquefied by low temperature and high pressure
Electrolysis of Water
- electricity passed through water containing 15% sodium/potassium hydroxide, breaking down water into its components, hydrogen and oxygen
*Oxygen can also obtained either thermolysis of KClO3 with MnO2 as catalyst or by the action of water on sodium peroxide.
tasteless gas which supports combustion
responsible for oxidative changes in paints, fats, oil
Commercial oxygen is stored in green-colored cylinder
CARBON DIOXIDE USP 31
Carbonic Acid Gas
odorless, colorless gas
stored in gray metallic cylinders
Dry ice – solid carbon dioxide, used as refrigerant
HELIUM USP 31
NITROUS OXIDE USP 31
EXPECTORANTS AND EMETICS
Sal Ammoniac, Salmiac, Ammonium Muriate.
Colorless crystals or as white, fine or coarse crystalline powder.
Has a cool saline taste. Somewhat hygroscopic.
Soluble in: Water, glycerin and boiling water.
Increases secretions of saliva, mucous and sweat.
Cubicle crystals, either transparent or colorless.
Somewhat opaque and white or as a white granular powder.
Alkaline or neutral.
Treatment to goiter.
AGENT THAT COUNTERACTS A POISON
relieves pathological condition accompanied by difficulty in breathing
Given in cases of poisoning by CO, charcoal gas, nitrous oxide, chloroform poisoning
Respiratory stimulant for persons suffering from impairment of the respiratory organs
Dry ice – destroys tissue by freezing it, treatment of acne, angiomas (tumor made up of blood), calluses, eczema, moles, psoriasis, warts
used to make carbonated drinks
Pure oxygen should be given only for a limited time period of time because it could cause harmful effects like edema of the lungs.
does not support combustion
must be stored in brown green cylinders
80% He + 20% O2 – used to overcome difficulty in respiration
used in high pressure underwater diving, reduces the risk of bends (formation of bubbles in the blood)
*When inhaled, it causes the pitch of sounds/voice to be increased, producing a Donald Duck sound.
- produces inebriation in small doses (it can make you high)
Coercible, colorless gas
With a slightly agreeable odor and sweetish taste.
Maintains and revives the combustion of substances
Anesthetic in large doses
Used by inhalation when momentary anesthesia is desired
Used for extraction of teeth / opening of the abscesses
Stimulates the flow of respiratory tract secretions
Used inthe treatments of respiratory disorders
Terpinhydrate- has direct effect over bronchial secretory cells.
Acts with a reflex action by irritating the gastric mucosa, thereby stimulating respiratory tract secretion.
Emetics in low doses have sometimes been used in cough preparations.
1. Counteracts the effects of a poison by producing other effects-
2. Changes the chemical nature of the poison-
3. the adsorption of the poison into the body-
How does an antidote work?
White to slightly yellow granular powder or white opaque
Fused masses or sticks
Mild saline taste
Deliquescent in air
Alkaline to litmus
Freely soluble in water
Sparingly soluble in alcohol
Antidote to cyanide poisoning
Converts hemoglobin into methoglobin in order to bind cyanide
2% solution -intravenous