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Miscellaneous Inorganic Pharmaceutical Agents

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by

Denise Sarmiento

on 2 May 2015

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Transcript of Miscellaneous Inorganic Pharmaceutical Agents

Miscellaneous Inorganic Pharmaceutical Agents
INHALANTS
OXYGEN USP 31
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
Dephlogisticated air
Aire Vital
Fire air
Aire Puro
Fractional Distillation of Liquid Air (Linde Process)
- air is liquefied by low temperature and high pressure

Electrolysis of Water
- electricity passed through water containing 15% sodium/potassium hydroxide, breaking down water into its components, hydrogen and oxygen

*Oxygen can also obtained either thermolysis of KClO3 with MnO2 as catalyst or by the action of water on sodium peroxide.

Thermolysis
PROPERTIES
tasteless gas which supports combustion
responsible for oxidative changes in paints, fats, oil
Commercial oxygen is stored in green-colored cylinder

CARBON DIOXIDE USP 31
Carbonic Acid Gas
Carbonic Anhydride
odorless, colorless gas
stored in gray metallic cylinders
Dry ice – solid carbon dioxide, used as refrigerant

Properties:
HELIUM USP 31
NITROUS OXIDE USP 31
EXPECTORANTS AND EMETICS
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
Sal Ammoniac, Salmiac, Ammonium Muriate.
Colorless crystals or as white, fine or coarse crystalline powder.
Has a cool saline taste. Somewhat hygroscopic.
Soluble in: Water, glycerin and boiling water.
Increases secretions of saliva, mucous and sweat.
Systematic acidifier
Chloride replenisher
POTASSIUM IODIDE
Kalium Jodatum
Cubicle crystals, either transparent or colorless.
Somewhat opaque and white or as a white granular powder.
Alkaline or neutral.
Slightly hygroscopic.
Expectorant (Antitussive)
Antifungial agent
Treatment to goiter.
ANTIDOTES
AGENT THAT COUNTERACTS A POISON
USES
relieves pathological condition accompanied by difficulty in breathing
Given in cases of poisoning by CO, charcoal gas, nitrous oxide, chloroform poisoning

USES
Respiratory stimulant for persons suffering from impairment of the respiratory organs
Dry ice – destroys tissue by freezing it, treatment of acne, angiomas (tumor made up of blood), calluses, eczema, moles, psoriasis, warts
used to make carbonated drinks
Pure oxygen should be given only for a limited time period of time because it could cause harmful effects like edema of the lungs.
CAUTION
PROPERTIES
inert gas
does not support combustion
must be stored in brown green cylinders
80% He + 20% O2 – used to overcome difficulty in respiration
used in high pressure underwater diving, reduces the risk of bends (formation of bubbles in the blood)

*When inhaled, it causes the pitch of sounds/voice to be increased, producing a Donald Duck sound.
USES
Laughing Gas
- produces inebriation in small doses (it can make you high)

PROPERTIES
USES
Coercible, colorless gas
With a slightly agreeable odor and sweetish taste.
Maintains and revives the combustion of substances
Anesthetic in large doses
Used by inhalation when momentary anesthesia is desired
Used for extraction of teeth / opening of the abscesses
Stimulates the flow of respiratory tract secretions
Used inthe treatments of respiratory disorders
Terpinhydrate- has direct effect over bronchial secretory cells.
Acts with a reflex action by irritating the gastric mucosa, thereby stimulating respiratory tract secretion.
Emetics in low doses have sometimes been used in cough preparations.

1. Counteracts the effects of a poison by producing other effects-
physiological antidote
2. Changes the chemical nature of the poison-
chemical antidote
3. the adsorption of the poison into the body-
mechanical antidote
How does an antidote work?
Physiological Antidote
SODIUM NITRITE
Natrium, Nitrosum
White to slightly yellow granular powder or white opaque
Fused masses or sticks
Mild saline taste
Deliquescent in air
Alkaline to litmus
Freely soluble in water
Sparingly soluble in alcohol
Antidote to cyanide poisoning
Converts hemoglobin into methoglobin in order to bind cyanide
2% solution -intravenous
Reinoso
Roque
Salud
Sarmiento
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