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Child Labour Prezi

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Ovais Ahmad

on 21 May 2013

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Transcript of Child Labour Prezi

Child Labour in India and China Issue
Description: CHILD LABOUR :
According the ILO (International Labour Organization) child labour is the type of work that children should not be doing, due to many reasons such as being too young to work, or if old enough
to work to be put in dangerous or unsuitable conditions for a person to be working in.

Refers to work THAT
•is MENTALLY, PHYSICALLY, SOCIALLY, MORALLY dangerous and harmful to children;
•interferes with their schooling by:
•depriving them the opportunity to attend school;
•obliging them to leave school prematurely; or
•requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work. The WORST FORMS of Child Labour
a) all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery
(b) the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution
(c) the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities
(d) work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children.
Labour that jeopardizes the physical, mental or moral well-being of a child, either because of its nature or because of the conditions in which it is carried out, is known as “hazardous work”. Child Labour India India has the largest population of child labourers in the world.
There were 12.7 million reported economically active children in the age group of 5-12 years.
Majority of child labourers are minorities
They are recruited primarily to reduce production costs
Also because of their inherent weakness to unionize for bargaining better wages, improved work conditions and related labour rights.
Child workers are often recruited from poverty stricken areas, and areas of failed agriculture, droughts and floods. China China’s domestic legislation offers protection for a large range of children’s rights.
China has all these legal restrictions on the employment of children (child labour), but in China child labour is not as serious as it is in other countries but it is rising.
“According to government statistics, more than 10 million children, aged 6-15 ("Far East Economic Review" claims 24 million) are out of school in China. A conservative estimation is that half of these children are working in factories.”
The rate of child labour is increasing as in the last couple of years; there is an increase on the amount of children getting kidnapped.
It is believed that most of them are sold to work in factories.
Many of these children who have been kidnapped or decided to work from a young age work in very hazardous conditions, as one third of workers are working in treacherous conditions “in which poisonous chemicals, dust and noise prevail. Children absolutely suffer more than adults in such horrible working conditions.” Cause of Child Labour Poverty & Employment -Poverty has an obvious relationship with child labour, and studies have “revealed a positive correlation – in some instances a strong one – between child labour and such factors as poverty” (Mehra-Kerpelman 1996, 8).
- In 1990, 37% of the urban population and 39% of the rural population was living in poverty (International Labour Organization 1995, 107).
In 2008 less than 13.1% (172 million) of the population of the People’s Republic of China live with less than 1.25$ a day (International Labour Organization 1995, 108).

-According to the HAQ: centre for child rights, the persistence of child labor is mainly due to the benefits employers get from reducing general wages, more work being extracted from them and the elimination of unions, (HAQ, 2006) Social/Cultural
Social values
-Another main cause of child labour is social and cultural values
-One reason why children work is because the environment they live in promotes child labour
Education
- “Children in India who are not attending school are likely to be working” (Weiner, 1990)
-Many children are working partly because the education they receive is unaffordable, inaccessible or seen as irrelevant.
-To children in rural parts of India and China where education is limited and often times unavailable, a more productive way to spend their time is working even if that means in poor labour conditions.
Population
-Research shows that there is a strong correlation between over-population and child labour (Busse, 2002).
-Parents are left with no option than to send their beloved children into hazardous environments for jobs in order for survival, even when it is a violation of their morals and ethics.
-Over population, similarly to poverty, in China and India creates paucity of basic resources necessary to survive, such as; food, shelter and clothing.
Political
Government laws and reinforcement
-The abolition of child labour is greatly dependant on strict implementation of child labour laws and continuous reinforcement of these laws.
-Although both India and China have regulations against child labour such as the Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act of 1986 prohibiting employment of children below the age of 14 years in hazardous occupations and the series of laws in the Regulations Banning Child Labour similarly banning hazardous child labour from India and China respectively, child labour still persists.
-Also, in extreme cases, despite inspectors routinely checking factories for violations they turn a blind eye
Political Trade laws
-Trade laws have a dominant effect on child labour.- In October 2011 the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) issued a report, List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, indicating that 71 countries make 130 goods that are produced with child labor or forced labor
-Free trade is meant to eliminate unfair barriers to global commerce and raise the economy in developed and developing nations alike however one of the many negative effects of free trade is the adverse working conditions.

Education is one of the most primary forms and efforts to reduce and eradicate child labour.

Education would provide the essential skills and security these children need in their lives and in the future protecting them from economic expoitation.

Consequently, education will provide social inclusion alongside a healthy development.

Case study in Kerala, India showed that high investment in education results in the lowest child labour rate in India. Solutions to Child Labour Laws and Legislature
Enforcement China and India both have strong laws and legislatures against child labour but the implementation of such laws has been poor to none. India China The Constitution of India(Article 24, 39(e), 39(f), 45), these various articles in the Constitution dispels against child labour.
The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act
The Factories Act
The Juvenile Justice of Children Act of 2000:
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act Compulsory Education Law:
PRC Labor Law (Article 15): The enforcement of these laws on the national, state and municipal level would provide the necessary steps needed to eradicate child labour.

Through placing strict and dedicated protection of child workers and their labour laws it provides them with the compulsory education today and the prosperous future tomorrow Effects of Child Labour Title Eliminating child labor is one of the biggest challenges that the whole world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keep him deprive of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. According to statistics provided by UNICEF, there are an estimated 250 million children aged 5 to 14 years employed in child labour worldwide and this figure is continuously increasing. Child labor in Asia accounts for the highest percentage of child labour (61%). •Rapid skeletal growth
•Greater risk of hearing loss
•Greater need for food and rest
•Higher chemical absorption rates
•Smaller size
•1/4 of economically active children suffer injuries or illnesses while working, according to International Labor Organization survey of 26 countries.
•Each year, as many as 2.7 million healthy years of life are lost due to child labor, especially in agriculture.
•Poverty-related health problems ( malnutrition, fatigue, anemia) increase the risks and consequences of work-related hazards & may lead to permanent disabilities and premature death. Title 2 Title 3 •Children who work often face serious health problems because of working incessantly in perilous conditions. Often the employers do not care at all about underage children who are almost always malnourished, and continue to work for long hours with little or no respite.
•Their mental health also takes a beating owing to this severe form of exploitation. These children often face severe mental trauma when they attain adulthood, owing to the constant threats and ill-treatment they received toiling away as laborers.
•Children who cannot find work to feed large families resort to begging on the streets, and in many cases, also fall prey to prostitution. At other times, they even turn into thieves just to make a quick buck on which the family's survival depends. •It also has a negative impact on the welfare of a nation. Since these children do not receive any education, it increases illiteracy, hampering the overall economic growth of the country, reflecting poor human development.

•Lack of education as children also means that when they turn into adults, finding jobs becomes tough since these children do not possess the necessary skills and training. This leads to a sharp hike in unemployment.

•Such children are always underpaid, and that lowers the country's per capita income, putting long-term economic development in peril. Effects Boycott Companies
that use Child Labour Toys ‘R’ Us, Urban Outfitters, Forever 21, Aeropostale, Apple, Nike, Wal-Mart, H&M, Abercrombie, The Gap, Old Navy, Banana Republic, and Nestle all use child labour.
A solution for child labour would be to boycott and spread awareness such brands that place children in horrendous working condition.
The immense lack of consumer demand will force companies to reform their heinous attitude.
A case study in 2012 revealed that activist groups created the “Raise the Bar” campaign which boycotted and placed pressure on Hershey for its use of child labour.
The aftermath resulted in Hershey agreeing to implement FairTrade certification Switch Child Labour
with Adult Unemployment Karnataka Child
Labour Project A solution would replace all child workers with unemployed adults, thus providing education to children alongside financial stability to the family. Karnataka child labour Project employs 1,000 adult workers, parents/sibling of rehabilitated child workers
The project allowed education for children, while filling the child labour jobs with their adult family members.
Resulted in financial stability for the family and successful education for the children. NGO Invovlement Free the Children Free the children is an international charity focused ending child labour, providing education, and basic necessities to struggling countries and communities.

to fight child labour, FTC has build over 650 schools and classrooms allowing 55,000 children to have a free education through their fundraising campaign called "Brick by Brick" Taking part in NGO such as Free the Children will significantly help end and reduce child labour. There are approximately 60 million child workers in India and 46 million unemployed adults in India. The adult counterparts would easily replace the jobs of the children.
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