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It's just simple!

Raghad Mahmoud

on 5 October 2012

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Transcript of Landforms

In this lesson, we'll learn about the following topics:-
Common Types of Landforms
How are Landforms created?
Physical Characteristics
Types of Landforms Landforms Are natural physical features found on the surface of the Earth. How are Landforms created? Landforms Common Types of Landforms:-
- Mountain - Valley
- Plain - Plateaus * Landforms are created by:
Forces of nature. (EX: Wind, water, and ice)
The movement of the Earth's plates. NOTE: Some landforms are created in a
few hours; others take millions of years to
appear. Plain Valley Plateaus Mountain Landscapes Groups of landforms in a particular area. Physical Characteristics Physical feature of landforms include many elements. EX: Mound: A general term for an artificial pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris.
Ridge: A geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance.
Cliff: A high steep rock facing the sea.
Pond: A small lake or pool.
Lake: Body of water surrounded by land. (Opposite of island)
Hill: A piece of high land, smaller than a mountain. Mountain: A high land compared to the surrounding area.
Valley: A flat surface between mountains or hills.
River: A large stream of water flowing across country. TYPES OF LANDFORMS 1. Highest Order Landforms: Landforms that are advanced
in structure and formation, and takes a long time to form. EX: Oceans and Continents Large / huge mass of land. A vast body
of salt H2O that covers almost 3/4s of the Earth's surface. 2. Elementary Landforms: Landforms that are not advanced in structure
and formation, and takes a short time to form. EX: Segments, relief units, and Facets. A similar surface to a cut
on a fragment of rock by water. NOTE: Landforms are areas that
have relatively homongenous
properties. Landforms do not include
man-made features such as
canals (An artifical waterway for navigation / irrigation), and ports (A place along the coast where the ships load and unload). Geographical / Geo-
graphic features such
as deserts, forests,
and grasslandss are
not landforms. Plate Tectonics A factor that affect the formation of landforms.
The movement of the Earth beneath our feet is responsible for:
Earthquakes, volcanoes, and the formation of mountains.
The Earth is composed of many plates, which are moving steadily in relation to one another driven by forces deep in the Earth's core.
These forces include both the force of Gravity and Heat.
GRAVITY: The force of attraction, which is the function of the enor-
mous mass at the core of the Earth.
HEAT: Extreme pressure resulting in tension or strain.
NOTE: Pressure Gradients: The differences in MASS AND HEAT within the Earth.
( It results in deformation of rocks) EARTH is constantly moving.
EARTH moves about 2 cm
a day. NOTES: Pacific Plate is the largest plate.

Juan De Fuca Plate is the largest plate. STRESS - Under the effects of stress:
Rocks may bend.
Rocks may warp.
Rocks may slide.
Rocks may break. TYPES OF STRESSES Tension: A type of stress that stretches a material.
Compression: A type of stress produced by equal and opposite forces actions, whose effect is to reduce the length of a material.
Shear: A type of stress resulting from equal and opposite forces that do not act along the same line.
This stresses results in fold, faults, or bends
in the rock structure. It may also result in a depress-
ion or uplift in the Earth's crust, that can form either
earthquakes or volcanoes. EROSION The removal of surface material from the Earth's crust and
the transportation of the eroded materials by natural
agencies from the point (.) of removal.
Caused by:
- Wind action.
- River and stream processes.
- Marine processes.
- Glacial processes.
Agents of Erosion:
- Wind.
- Water. DEPOSITION The geological process by which material
is added to a landform or a landmass.
Agents of Deposition and caused BY:
- Wind - Water BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Biological factors can influence landforms.
EX: Vegetation has an important role in the development of dunes.

EX: Corals and algae result in coral reef formation.
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