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Transcript of Renaissance
Died: May 30 1593
Greatly influenced William Shakespeare
He is well known for his blank verse
Unfinished "Hero of Leander" is most important example of non-dramatic verse
"Tamburlaine" was his first written play
Some of his writings were thought to be atheistic
Marlowe was warranted for an arrest on May 18th 1593 for alleged blasphemy
He was stabbed to death by Ingram Frizer in what has been thought to be an assassination as punishment for Marlowe's atheism.
- Lived from 1567-1620.
- He was a law student, a composer, a physician, and a poet.
-His parents died while he was young but they left him enough money for him to attend to Peterhouse College, Cambridge although he did not take a degree.
-Received a medical degree from the University of Caen. -Life: 1564-1616 (birthday unknown)
-Poet and Playwright
-Early plays were mainly comedies and histories
-Later plays were mostly tragedies
-Lastly wrote tragicomidies
-He did not rise to fame in his life time, it came much later starting in the 19th century
-His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied and performed by many throughout the world Lyric, Elegy, Tragedy, and Pastoral Cultural Social -Roman Catholic Church ruled
- The holy Roman Empire was the head and the Pope was the spiritual head.
-Establishment of effective central government -Northern Europe saw the rise of national monarchies headed by kings, especially in England and France.
-King Henry VIII
Queen Elizabeth I Sir Thomas More Born February 7th 1478 Died July 6th 1535 -Humanism becomes popular.
-Began in Italy and moved through Europe.
- Humanism is the philosophy that humans are rational beings
-Dignity and worth as an individual gains importance
-Humanism relied on flexible thinking and less focus on the past
-The humanists believed that the Greek and Latin classics contained both all the lessons one needed to lead a moral and effective life and the best models for a powerful Latin style. -"Rebirth"
-Resurgence of ideas, philosophies, and culture from the classical period
-Golden age of cultural, intellectual and ideological movements drawn on many elements of classic Greek and Roman history The Rebirth -Emerged from a collection of city-states in Italy
-Florence was the most powerful with its commercial strength as textile and banking center
-Growing mercantile class was the focal point for cultural transformations -As young boy he served as a page for Archbishop Morton
-Studied at Oxford before returning to London to study law
-Torn Between Monastic Calling and life of Civil Service
-Eventually entered Parliament in 1505
-Withdrew from Social Life after Father was imprisoned as punishment for Robert recommending a decrease in King Henry VII's appropriation
-Returned after the King's death in 1509
-Once again rose very high in power to the office of Lord Chancellor
-Refused to swear to the Act of Succession and Oath of Supremacy
-Beheaded besides Bishop Fisher for this act of 'treason'.
-"The King's good servant, but God's first." During the 15th century, there was a rise in Humanism as well as the power of the Roman Catholic Church.
In the 16th century there began a resistance against secularism.
Later during the time of the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation would begin to break the power of the Catholic Church. Literature -Fall of Byzantine Empire brought copies of classical philosophical texts, literature and salvaged art works
-Brought copies of classical Greek and Roman periods lost throughout centuries Art -Michelangelo, da Vinci, Giotto, Botticelli, Masaccio
-Elevated art to a new level and form of cultural expression
-Money from middle classes went towards artists and architects to create masterpieces William Shakespeare Sir Walter Raleigh Poetry and Theater Humanism A willingness to intermix different genres Described as ostentatious, repetitious, and has a subtle wit Often meant to be accompanied by music. The Vatican Expectations as far as individual poetic genre's were quickly established. More General Specifics Characterized as being BOLD, innovative and trend setting There was a willingness to intermix different genres Spirit of optimism, unlimited potential and stoic English characters Meant to 'encapsulate beauty and truth in words.' Theme
Style & Format Literary Characteristics of
the Renaissance Era At the beginning of the era plays began to move more towards a secular style. They also switched from being primarily religious in nature towards politics Plays quickly changed from a purpose of teaching to a purpose of entertaining These plays were much more comedic than their Mid-evil counter parts. The themes of order and disorder were very important to the Renaissance literature. -English courtier, explorer, soldier, and writer-Lived from 1554-1618 (Died at the age 65). With the focus on 'antiquity' being so prevalent, many ancient Latin works were translated for layman terms Macbeth by William Shakespeare Utopia -Was a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I after serving in her army in Ireland
-Knighted and within two years became captain of the queen’s guard-Established a colony near Roanoke Island which he named Virginia in honor of the Queen To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
To the last syllable of recorded time;
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player,
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage,
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing. Their women are not married before eighteen, nor their men before two-and-twenty, and if any of them run into forbidden embraces before marriage they are severely punished, and the privilege of marriage is denied them, unless they can obtain a special warrant from the Prince. Such disorders cast a great reproach upon the master and mistress of the family in which they happen, for it is supposed that they have failed in their duty. The reason of punishing this so severely is, because they think that if they were not strictly restrained from all vagrant appetites, very few would engage in a state in which they venture the quiet of their whole lives, by being confined to one person, and are obliged to endure all the inconveniences with which it is accompanied.
In choosing their wives they use a method that would appear to us very absurd and ridiculous, but it is constantly observed among them, and is accounted perfectly consistent with wisdom. Before marriage some grave matron presents the bride naked, whether she is a virgin or a widow, to the bridegroom; and after that some grave man presents the bridegroom naked to the bride. We indeed both laughed at this, and condemned it as very indecent. But they, on the other hand, wondered at the folly of the men of all other nations, who, if they are but to buy a horse of a small value, are so cautious that they will see every part of him, and take off both his saddle and all his other tackle, that there may be no secret ulcer hid under any of them; and that yet in the choice of a wife, on which depends the happiness or unhappiness of the rest of his life, a man should venture upon trust, and only see about a hand's-breadth of the face, all the rest of the body being covered, under which there may lie hid what may be contagious as well as loathsome. All men are not so wise as to choose a woman only for her good qualities; and even wise men consider the body as that which adds not a little to the mind: and it is certain there may be some such deformity covered with the clothes as may totally alienate a man from his wife when it is too late to part from her. If such a thing is discovered after marriage, a man has no remedy but patience. They therefore think it is reasonable that there should be good provision made against such mischievous frauds. Corinna
WHEN to her lute Corinna sings,
Her voice revives the leaden strings,
And doth in highest notes appear
As any challenged echo clear.
But when she doth of mourning speak,
Even with her sighs the strings do break.
And as her lute doth live or die;
Led by her passion, so must I.
For when of pleasure she doth sing,
My thoughts enjoy a sudden spring;
But if she doth of sorrow speak,
Even from my heart the strings do break. Another typical theme is on virtues and vices The styles of poetry were typically all adaptations of classical literature from the period before mid-evil times. -He married the Queen's lady in waiting without her permission.
-Elizabeth’s successor, James I, distrusted and feared Raleigh, charged him with treason and condemned him to death, but was instead imprisoned in the Tower of London.
-History of the World -He was released from the Tower to search for gold but was sent back after he invaded and pillaged Spanish territory
-His original death for treason was invoked and was executed at Westminster Death Imprisonment A Farewell to False Love
Farewell, false love, the oracle of lies,
A mortal foe and enemy to rest,
An envious boy, from whom all care arise,
A bastard vile, a beast with rage possessed,
A way of error, a temple full of treason,
In all effects contrary unto reason.
A poisoned serpent covered all with flowers,
Mother of sighs, and murderer of repose,
A sea of sorrows whence are drawn such showers
As moisture lend to every grief that grows;
A school of guile, a net of deep deceit,
A gilded hook that holds a poisoned bait.
A fortress foiled, which reason did defend,
A siren song, a fever of the mind,
A maze wherein affection finds no end,
A raging cloud that runs before the wind,
A substance like the shadow of the sun,
A goal of grief for which the wisest run.
A quenchless fire, a nurse of trembling fear,
A path that leads to peril and mishap,
A true retreat of sorrow and despair,
An idle boy that sleeps in pleasure's lap
A deep mistrust of that which certain seems,
A hope of that which reason doubtful deems.
Sith then thy trains my younger years betrayed,
And for my faith ingratitude I find;
And sith repentance hath my wrongs bewrayed,
Whose course was ever contrary to kind:
False love, desire, and beauty frail, adieu.
Dead is the root whence all these fancies grew. Literary Characteristics -ABABCC format
-Focus on Love
-Secularism Who Ever Loved That Loved Not at First Sight?
It lies not in our power to love or hate,
For will in us is overruled by fate.
When two are stripped, long ere the course begin,
We wish that one should love, the other win;
And one especially do we affect
Of two gold ingots, like in each respect:
The reason no man knows; let it suffice
What we behold is censured by our eyes.
Where both deliberate, the love is slight:
Who ever loved, that loved not at first sight? Literary Characteristics -Tragedy
- Moral Themes
-Drama of the writing
-Vivid characters that would please the King/Queen
-Use of language Literary
Characteristics -A belief that classical Roman and Greek literature contained: -No ties to religion
-Focus on love
-Favorable female character
-Humanism/Individualism Much like the ideas of the Renaissance, Marlowe presents here his views on individualism
The poem "Whoever Loved That Loved Not at First Sight," demonstrates the human ability to love individually. We have the ability to find things on our own without influence from the government or the Church.
Finding love at first sight as shown in this poem, offers an example of free will to give your heart to another. This is something that hasn't been decided for an individual. All of the lessons needed to live a moral life
The best model for a powerful Latin style