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# Chapter 10 - Intelligence

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## April M

on 26 October 2012

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#### Transcript of Chapter 10 - Intelligence

the ability to direct one's thinking, adapt to one's circumstances, and learn from one's experiences Intelligence The Intelligence Quotient Deviation IQ Hierarchy of Abilities Factor Analysis Heritability heritability coefficient Group Differences? Stereotype threat How can it be measured? A statistic obtained by dividing a person's mental age by the person's physical age and then multiplying the quotient by 100 A statistic obtained by dividing a person's test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100 Ratio IQ Individual
Test Score: 85 Average Score for
Same Age Group: 75 x 100 = IQ 113 Individual
Mental Age: 27 Individual Physical
Age: 20 x 100 = IQ 135 Computed
for Allows
comparison
between age
groups children adults no yes Are there different types of it? A statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors Two-factor theory Spearman's theory suggesting that every task requires a combination of two factors:
General ability (g)
+
Skills that are specific to the task (s) Middle-Level Abilities Fluid Intelligence The ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences Crystallized Intelligence ? The ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience How many degrees in a right angle?

What is the largest land mammal? (Processing) (Information) these are Has an
Extraordinary
Ability drawing by a 5-year old Normal Intelligence Low Intelligence Prodigy Savant Emotional Intelligence The ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning Where does it come from? A statistic that describes the proportion of the differences between people's scores that can be explained by differences in their genes Fraternal
(dizygotic) twins Twins who develop from two different eggs that were fertilized by two different sperm Identical
(monozygotic) twins Twins who develop from the splitting of a single egg that was fertilized by a single sperm genes shared 50% 100% shared environment Those environmental factors that are experienced by all relevant members of a household nonshared environment Those environmental factors that are not experienced by all relevant members of a household Environment + = Intelligence Examples: Socioeconomic status (SES) & Education Can it be improved? Are there group differences? the experience of anxiety or concern in a situation where a person has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about their social group caused by yes yes no testing
situations less healthful
and/or
stimulating environments genetic differences b/n groups yes can cause Fido, afraid of confirming a stereotype that dogs can't do algebra, became very nervous on his algebra test which then caused him to actually do poorly. Can it be Improved? by yes yes pharmaceuticals
(temporarily) genetic manipulation
(so far, only tried in animals) yes
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