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Transcript of Freshwater Wetlands
An example of this is the relationship between the Monarch butterfly and the toxic milk weed. by: Austin Hansen The most common freshwater wetland is swampland. The freshwater biome is located on every continent except for Antarctica. Most people think of it being a nuisance, but freshwater wetlands are an important part of our ecosystem. More examples of freshwater wetlands are marshes or bogs. In freshwater wetland the water will always be standing water. Most of them will have water in them all of the time, but some will only have water in them during certain parts of the year. There are 4 different seasons in freshwater wetlands. There is Summer, Fall, Winter, and Spring. The average temperature of a freshwater wetland in summer is 76 degrees Fahrenheit. The average temperature in winter is 30 degrees Fahrenheit. The average rainfall in a freshwater wetland is 59 inches or 150 centimeters to 200 inches or 500 centimeters. The freshwater wetlands get and average of 7-10 hours of sunlight a day throughout the year. The altitude of a wetland would affect the population because different types of organisms live at different altitudes. Soil could affect the population because of the nutrients it holds. The amount and type of nutrients it holds will affect the population. The greenhouse effect will effect the freshwater wetlands hugely. With the increase in Co2 Content in the earths atmosphere it is causing the earths overall temperature to rise. If the temperature in the wetland rise then the climate will change, causing a mass extinction with reptiles and amphibians. If a species were to die off in an ecosystem then the whole ecosystem would have to change to deal with the loss of the certain species. The biotic factors in freshwater wetlands are producers, herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, detritivores, and decomposers. Without these specific abiotic factors the biotic factors would not be able to survive. Parasitism is a non-mutual relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host. An example of parasitism in freshwater wetlands is between leeches and the catfish. Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits. An example of Mutualismin the freshwater wetlands is the relationship between the bee and the Buttercup flower. Elevation:
The elevation in freshwater wetlands are generally low. This is the reason why they accumulate so much water. The general range of elevation is anywhere from 20-25 feet above sea level. Sunlight:
The freshwater wetlands get between 7 and 10 hours of sunlight everyday. In the summer months like June and July they tend to more around 10 hours of sunlight as in the winter months they tend to get more around 7 hours of sunlight. The amount of hours the sunlight is presented to the freshwater wetlands influences the climate by sending UV rays that get trapped under the greenhouse gasses and heat the environment. Latitude:
Freshwater wetlands are located on, around, and in between the two tropics because of the warmer climate. Most freshwater wetlands are located on the outskirts of large bodies of water or low lying areas where the water accumulates. Rainfall:
The average rainfall in a freshwater wetland is 59 inches or 150 centimeters to 200 inches or 500 centimeters. The freshwater wetlands get their large amount of precipitation because of their low elevation and the latitude location where they are at is located by both the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer. Greenhouse Effect:
The greenhouse effect will effect the freshwater wetlands hugely. With the increase in Co2 content in the earths atmosphere it is causing the earths overall temperature to rise. If the temperature in the wetland rise then the climate will change, causing a mass extinction with reptiles and amphibians. If a species were to die off in an ecosystem then the whole ecosystem would have to change to deal with the loss of the certain species. Biotic Factors:
Decomposers Producers: Cattails Reeds Ragweed Sedges Sphagnum Moss Waterlilies Algae Arrowhead <--------------------------------> Producers are at the bottom of the food chain. They are the primary food source for everything in the certain biome. Producers are the things that give everything else in the ecosystem their energy. Producers get their energy from the sun and then they transfer that energy to whoever eats them. Herbivores: Moose Gopher Tortoise Swamp Rabbit Deer Beavers <-----------------> Ducks Herbivores obtain their energy from the producers of their ecosystem. Without the producers the herbivores wouldn't be able to survive. When the herbivores eat the producers though they only get about 10% of the energy and the other 90% is turned into heat. Snapping Turtle Marsh Hawk Alligator Barred Owl Cougar Carnivores <--------> The freshwater wetlands have many different varieties of carnivores. There are carnivores from almost every kind of animal in freshwater wetlands. The top predator in the freshwater wetland is the alligator. The carnivores get their energy by eating the herbivores and the herbivores get their energy by eating the producers. While the producers get their energy directly from the sun. The produces get 100% of the energy. Then the herbivores or the primary consumers get about 10% of the energy. After that the omnivores or the secondary consumer gets about 1% of the energy. Finally the carnivores or the tertiary consumers get about 0.1% of the energy. All energy lost is turned into heat. Crayfish Muskrat Painted Turtle Omnivores <------> There are many omnivores in the freshwater wetlands. These consumers only receive about 1% of the energy from the organism that they are eating. The crayfish eats mainly algae and it also eats small fish and feeds on dead fish and other animals. The painted turtle feeds on algae and and small fish as well. Then the muskrat feeds mainly on plants but when the chance presents itself the muskrat will eat crayfish, frogs, and fish. Detritivores Snails Flies Crayfish <------> Detritivores and decomposers are an important part of every ecosystem, and are an essential part to every biome because they eat all of the organic material on the ground including dead plants and animals. They contribute to decomposition and the nutrient cycles. Decomposers Proteobacteria Fungi -----> The water cycle, nitrogen cycle, and carbon cycle play a huge role in the freshwater wetlands. In the water cycle, water is evaporated from the ground and turned into water vapor in the sky. After the water vapor creates a cloud and it rains or has precipitation, the rain waters all of the plants and trees. The process will then repeat. In the carbon cycle photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition extract carbon and oxygen from the wetland soil which is a storage for these kinds of gasses. Finally in the nitrogen cycle dead and decaying organic matter will release nitrogen into the atmosphere, after it is decomposed in the soil. Biogeochemical Cycles of Matter The biogeochemical cycles of matter in freshwater wetlands are external mineral inputs. The limiting factors in my biome are the minerals and nutrients in the soil. Human Impact Humans are doing things to freshwater wetlands which are greatly harming it and causing the biodiversity in these biomes to go down. Humans are dumping industrial waste, causing oil leakage and littering, which is harming it and affecting the ecosystem. Humans are affecting the biotic factors by killing them off and causing less biodiversity. We are affecting the abiotic factors by deforestation and our carbon dioxide out put. This is causing the overall temperature to go up and affecting the ecosystem majorly. Humans are affecting the cycle of matter. Biodiversity The biodiversity has greatly gone down and is still in the process of going down. Conservation techniques that humans should use to stop or slow down the process are stop deforestation and for each tree you take out, you plant two in its place. We also need to cut back on our fishing because we are overfishing this biome, almost to extinction. How to change As humans we need to stop polluting the freshwater wetland. We are dumping industrial waste in the wetlands and it is affecting the ecosystem majorly. If we stopped this then the biodiversity would increase along with the population. Works Cited The Freshwater Biome." The Freshwater Biome. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2013
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