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SCLY3

Basis revision for SCLY3 exam, good luck
by

RYAN SPENCER

on 6 June 2014

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Transcript of SCLY3

Functionalism
Gender and religion
Women and the new age- women are associated with nature and healing so more likely to join
NAM
.
Heelas and Woodhead
found that 80% of the population in the holistic population holistic medicine in
Kendal
were women.
Bruce
argues that women experiences in childbirth is aggressive and goal orientated which makes them more cooperative and caring- where men which to achieve and feel.
Differential socialization-

Miller and Hoffman
- found women are more religious as they are socialized to be more caring, obedient and caring.
Greely(1992)
argued women who take care of other family members use religion to take responsible care.
Breirly(2005)
-
Opinion doll
- belief in God was 64% men, 84% women. Church census- Church attitudes: 1979: 45% men, 55% women, 1989: 42% men, 58% women, 2005: 43% men, 57% women. Although organisations are dominated by men.
Compensation for deprivation
:
Glock and Stark(1969), Stark and Bainbridg(1985)
- women participate in religion as they are more deprived than men:
organismic deprivation, ethical deprivation and social deprivation
.
Theories of religious organizations
Troeltsch(1912)-
Sects
- protest against a church- Catholicism and Methodists. Aim to discover the true way and withdraw from wider society. They consist of exclusive members who have strong boundaries between themselves and wider society. E.g.
Black Muslims and Johovah's witnesses.
Troseltsch(1912)-

Churches
- a well established religious organization with usually conservative values and support order in society. They have large membership.There are monotheistic and polytheistic which only teach the truth. E.g.
Roman Catholics (1/6 of the world), and Baptist.
Neibuhr(1925)
-
Denominations
- usually Christian that are midway between a church and
a sect.
Becker
- a denomination is a sect that has 'cooled down'. Appeal to all classes except upper class. They originate due to a dissatisfaction with mainstream churches. E.g.
Methodism and Quakers
.
Neibuhr(1925)
-
Cults
-
Becker
argues that cults resemble sects. They are formed around an inspirational leader. They are world rejecting as they reject the values of society around them. They require exclusive membership and have low commitment levels. E.g.
Scientology and The Raelian movemen
t.
GOAL!
Ready for the exam!!!!
Religious Beliefs, social change and stability
Beliefs and Social Groups
Religious organisations, beliefs and practices
SCLY3 Revision
The basics
Max Weber
Fundamentalism
Fundamentalism is
"A set of beliefs which claim to go back to the fundamentals of a religion and which often claim that other versions of that religion became distorted and deluded."
Religion is a source of stability, change, conflict and inequality. Some fundamentalists are:
Al Queda, Christians, Muslims, scientists e.g. Darwin.
Two different forms of fundamentalism:
Western
- reaction to change taking place in society e.g.
New Christian right in the USA
.
Third world
- reaction to change being forced upon society from outside. e.g.
Al Queda
.
- Fundamentalism happens as Islamics want westernization but the poor are not ready for it and so follow different values (
Karen Armstrong, 2001
).
Steve Bruce(2007)
- argues that fundamentalism is caused by perceptions of religious preditionalists that the globalized world threatens beliefs and lifestyles. Usually happens in
Monotheistic religion
.
Feminism
Oppression of women
Simone De Beauvour
-
The second sex
- men control religious organization, women closer to God if they follow mens authority. Religion gives a false belief that their suffering will be rewarded in heaven.
Karen Armstrong
-
Polytheistic and monotheistic religions
- she argues women were leaders of religion before it changed to men in 1750 BCE in Babylon. there was a decline from the Goddess Tiamat to male God Marduk. Most influential religions are monotheisism e.g.
Chistianity
. (Religion causes social change).
Helen Watson
- '
Misinterpretation of the veil
'- point out that some religions can be misinterpreted as being patriarchal. She argues that in Islam it is not a sign of oppression, the veil is for protection against the 'male gaze' in
patriarchal society
where women can be victims of social heroism.
Marxism
Marx(1842)
Product of alienation
- people feel socially isolated and detached because they lack the ability to control their lives. Religion defers the idea that people will be rewarded in heaven so they should carry on.
The legitimation of inequality
- religion is an ideological weapon for the bourgeoisie to justify the suffering of the working class. e.g.
the
Hindu Caste system
. The doctoring of karma allows for the exploitation of the lower class due to negative past Karma.
False consciousness
- convincing the poor that they do not need to chance their negative situations therefore creating a false consciousness.
Neo-Marxism
Religion is a source for
social change
, religion can be used as a revolution e.g.
New Religious Movements.
Otto Mandura(1982)
- "
Liberation theology
"- (notable in Catholicism) which sides with oppressed gorups within society and supports their struggle as well as arguing in favour of redistribution of wealth.
e.g.
Martin Luther King Junior, Gandhi (Hindu religion used against oppression).
Religion is a source for
social change
-
Protestant ethics and spirit of capitalism (1905)
- Protestants have a work ethic of hard work and fragulity (don't spend money) which display as a persons salvation. Believe in
pedestrination
(born and chosen to go heaven at birth) but Calvinists believe they have to work hard to go to heaven creating a salvation panic.
Catholic countries correlated with economic disasters in 2010.
Calvinists believe 4 things:
1)
Pedetrination
- God decide heaven.
2)
Devine transcendence
- God all powerful can't know his decision until dead.
3)
Asceticism
- simple life lived.
4)
Vocation
- God chosen us to do a particular task.
Consequences - psychological function - reinvestment of capital.
Religion is a source of social change, not stability, conflict or inequality.
Theories of ideology
It is a worldview, set of ideas or beliefs which is often regarded as factually or morally wrong in some way.
Marx
-
ruling class ideology
-
bourgeoisie
- ideas,
ruling class= free market economics, communism and patriachy.
Gamsci
-
Hegemony and Revolution
(neomarxism)- criticize Marx for bring
reductionist, hegemony- ruling class ideology domination, dual consciousness- ruling class ideology
and experience of ideology, spread true class consciousness so changes occur by a working class political party.
Mannheim
-
ideology and utopia
- all belief systems are subjective= ideological thought (justify status quo), utopian thought (justifies social change), as bourgeoisie are clever by attaching religion to particular groups causing for a solution of free floating intelligence.
Leonardo
- Post modernism and ideology- '
metanarratives
' (big story) ideology term rejected. Modernity- ideology is a disaster which causes conflict. therefore ideology is in decline.
Philo and Miller (2001)
postmodernism is a form of ideology which supports capitalism which in itself is ideology.
E.g.
Fundamentalism, Facism, Thatchism, Communism, Capitalism
Theories of ideology, theories and religion
Globalisation and Belief systems
India, Hinduism andd Globalisation
.- Globalisation has created a scientifically an education urban, middle class in India working in IT. Indian middle class demonstrate religious tourism- increased visits/ interested to shrines and temples which have now became fashionable. This links to
Bellah's(1970)
concept of civil religion because as culture has change in India but so has religion creating a civil religion.
Religion and the tiger economy
- due to globalisation, entrepreneurs have been able to go to countries like China, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea and enforce their protestant ethic of hard work, self discipline and frugality, they have been able to get the people to follow these ethical beliefs and work for cheap labour. This leads to economic productivity and the
accumulation of capitalism
.
Cultural defence in Poland
- religion provides a group identity-
cultural defence
. From 1945-1989- Poland was under communist rules, imposed from the outside Soviet Union.
The Catholic church
was suppressed. Marxists argued that if we have lie in a communist country religion will not exist and disappear. Although Marxists have clearly been proven wrong as the Catholic church still remained.
Secularization and religiosity in contemporary society
Theories of religion
Functionalism-
Emile Durkheim(1915)
-
Collective consciousness
-
religion source of social stability, as it enforces social integration reminding the individual of the power and importance of society.
Totemism
study of australian aborigines worship society (solidarity and belonging).
Marxism-

Marx(1842)-
Product of alienation
- people feel socially isolated and detached because they lack the ability to control their lives. Religion defers the idea that people will be rewarded in heaven so they should carry on.
Feminism-

Karen Armstrong
-
Polytheistic and monotheistic religions
-
she argues women were leaders of religion before it changed to men in 1750 BCE in Babylon. there was a decline from the Goddess Tiamat to male God Marduk. Most influential religions are monotheisism e.g.
Chistianity
. (Religion causes social change).
Theories of science
The CUDOS norm
-
Robert Merton(1973)
- science can only thrive as a major social institution if it receives respect from other institutions and values. 4 norms:
communism

(scientific knowledge not private property),
universalism
(universal criterion judges scientific knowledge),
disinterestedness
(commit to knowledge is regarded as sacred),

organized scepticism
(no knowledge is regarded as sacred). e.g.
decline in England due to values and attitudes created by protestant information, stress social warfare.
Faslificationism
-
Karl Popper(1959)
- scientific knowledge of theories are open to scrutiny and testing. It enable scientific understanding for the world to grow. Scientific knowledge is cumulative- its built on the achievements of previous scientists. e.g, People still test Newtons law of gravity.
Witchcraft in the Azande tribes
-
Evan- Pritchard(1936)
- believe natural events have natural causes, e.g.
snake bite down familiar road give poison to chicken- if chicken dies = witchcraft.
Belief systems have a useful social function to provide norms for people living with others.
Social class and religion
Upper class
Heelas(1996)
- argues
NAM's
appeal to middle class women.
Bruce(2000)
-
NAM's
appeal to expensive professionals as of self importance and
human potential movements
.
In the UK Churches appeal to all but mainly upper and middle class as of
conservative ideology
.
Audience/ client cults (
Stark and Bainbridge,1985
) or World affirming NRM's (
Wallis,1984
) appeal to successful and those who want to become more successful.

Lower class
Other cult movements are similar to cults and attract disadvantaged or
relatively deprived
people.
Sects recruit disadvantaged people in society, e.g.
Black Muslims in the USA recruiting poor Black Americans.

Wallis
-
sects
appeal to middle class.
Karl Marx
-
False consciousness.
Age and Religion
English Church census, Christian research(2005)
:
Under 15- 624000 15-19yrs- 153000
20-29yrs- 231000 30-44yrs- 469000
45-65yrs- 907000 65yrs+- 755000
Western Buddhism (2005)
: 0%, 0%, 13%, 2%, 36%, 8%
Gills(1998)
- children no longer go Church as they dont receive religious socialization.
Hard to operationalise religiosity.
Davie
- people age 15-34 are less likely than 54 year olds to believe in God due to WW2.
The Kendal Project-
Heelas and Woodhead(2000-2002)
- 80% of people involved in holistic medicine were middle aged.
Voas andCrokett(2005)
-
Age effect
- increase age= increase religiosity.
Generation effect
- less religiosity.
Ethnicity and religion
Cultural defense
-
Bruce(2002)
argues that religion offers support and cultural identity for hostile environments.
Bird(1999)
- religion among minorities create
soidarity
, maintenance of culture and language as well as coping with oppression.
Cultural transition
- religion is create to fit into the new society.
Herberg(1955)
found high religious participation in first generation immigrants in the USA.
Ken Pryce(1979)
- Studies African Caribbean community in Bristol and showed
cultural defense
and
cultural transition
to have been important. Pentecostalism is highly adaptive as a 'religion of the oppressed'- providing migrants with values for the new world.
Policy study of institutes(1997)
% rating religion important: White Angelic 11%,White Catholic 32%, Hindu 43%, African Caribbean Protestants 81%, Muslims.
% attend weekly worship: WA 9%, WC 29%, H43%, ACP 57%, M 62%.
New Religious Movements
Roy Wallis(1984)
It is a religion or
spiritual organisation
that originated during the 1960's and 70's. There are three types of NRM's:
World rejecting
- They vary greatly in size. Members must mark a sharp break with their former life and members have restricted constraints to the outside world. E.g.
Children of God and The people Temple
.
World accommodating-
encourage members to remain in wider society though they are dissatisfied with it and critical of the secular/ non-religious nature of society. They are seen as
denominations
as on one path to salvation. E.g.
Neo- Pentecostalism and Siddha Yoga
.
World affirming
- Broadly accept the world and offer their members/ clients techniques to enable them to give more to live more successfully in the world. They are similar to cults as they support the norms and values of mainstream culture. E.g.
Scientology and Transcendental meditation
.
Millennarian
- This is belief in a savior or divine intervention to save the world. The anticipation of massive social upheaval through the involvement of outside supreme forces. E.g.
Divine intervention, Aliens
.
New Age Movements
The new age and modernity
Heelas(1996)
The new age and modernity link in four way:
a source of identity, consumer culture, rapid social change, and decline of organized religion
.
Bruce(1995)
argues the growth of new age is a feature of the latest phase of modern society and not postmodernity.
Postmodernity and the new age
Science brings an opportunity progress to a better world but instead it has to give us war, genocide etc. As a result people have lost faith in experts such as doctors and they are disillusioned with the church which fails to meet their spiritual needs as a result doctors turn to NAM's for answers.
John Drane(1999)
argues that NAM's appeal is part of a shift towards a postmodenal society. This leads to a loss of faith in
metanarratives
or those who claim to be truthful.
The growth of the new age
Heelas(1996)
There are two common themes of the new age:
Self spirituality
(turn away from religion and look inside themselves) and
Petraditionalisation
(value personal experience over spiritual authority). Usually world affirming or world rejecting.
Heelas(2008)
2000 activies and 146000 practitioners in the UK involved in NAM's. Argues they are loosely organized audience or client cults. These include beliefs in
UFO's, yoga, magic etc.
Cults
Neibuhr(1929)
-
Cults
- They are formed around an inspirational leader. They are world rejecting as they reject the values of society around them. They require exclusive membership and have low commitment levels. E.g.
Scientology and The Raelian movemen
t.
Becker
argues that cults resemble sects.
Roy Wallis(1974)
- Cults and denominations accept that there can be many valid interpretations.
Bruce(1996)
- Cults have florished since the 16th century Protestant reformation and religious diversity has became the norm.
Stark and Bainbridge
- cults conflict with wider society, they are new religions, such as
Scientology and Christian Science
, or ones new to that particular society that have been important, such as TM.
Audience cults
which dont require formal membership and unorganised , and membership may be through the media. E.g.
Astrology and UFO
.
Client cults
based on relationship between a consultant and client, and provide services to their followers. They promise self fulfillment and self discovery, e.g.
homeopathy and spiritualism
. Cultic movements are organised, have high level of commitment and aim to meet all its members needs, e.g.
Moonies
.
Cults are mainly
World affirming
originating from Wallis's definitions.
Sects
Troeltsch(1912)
-
Sects
- protest against a church- Catholicism and Methodists. Aim to discover the true way and withdraw from wider society. They consist of exclusive members who have strong boundaries between themselves and wider society. E.g.
Black Muslims and Johovah's witnesses.
Roy Wallis(1974)
- Sects and churches claim that their interpretation of the faith is the only legitimate or correct one.
Bruce(1996)
- Sects have florished since the 16th century Protestant reformation and religious diversity has became the norm.
Stark and Bainbridge
- Sects result from
schism
- splits in existing organisations. They break away from churches usually because of disagreement about doctrine.
Max Weber(1922)
-
marginality
- sects offer a solution to oppression by offering members-
theodicy of disprivileged
- this is a justification for their suffering and disadvantage.
Stark and Bainbridge
-
relative deprivation
- those who are relatively deprived break away from church and form sects that safe guard the original message of the organisation.
Neibuhn(1929)
-
Denomination and death
- short lived without a second generation. Reasons why they die out is the second generation, where there is no one to carry on the sect, death of a leader and the 'Protestant ethic' effect- the
asceticism
(hard work and saving) become more prosperous and world rejecting beliefs are abandoned.
Stark and Bainbridge(1985)
-
The sectarian cycle
- Process of sects-
Schism
(deprived member church become world rejecting),
Initial fervour
(tention formed between sect and society),
Denomination
(protestant ethic, tension ends),
Establishment
(become world accepting).
Wilson(1966,2003)
-
Established sects
- Disagree that all sects don't follow Stark and Bainbridge cycle with different view about what we should do to be saved.
Conversionist
sect e.g.
Evangelicals
, who convert large numbers of people and grow rapidly.
Advertist
sects e.g.
Severn Day Advertists
await second coming of Jesus and believe to be saved they must seperate themselves from the corrupt world around them.
They are usually World rejecting based on Wallis's definition.
Postmodernity
Davis
-
Believing not belonging
- religion has changed by it not being in decline but simply taking a different more primitive form. This is because people don't see church as respectable and so have a choice to go rather than forced to go. Religion has changed in terms of church attendance so people have become more privatised.
Although
Bruce

added that if people are not willing to invest time into going to church, this just reflects the declining strength of their beliefs.
Stark and Bainbridge
-
Rational choice theory
- religion has changed by declining and making new ones. State religion religion is in decline and this has forseen the lack of supplies for religious denominations in Europe.
Stark

supports this as he argues free market inreligion has stimulated participation in Japan. Until 1945 religions other than state were oppressed although now new types thrive
.
Bruce

argues that statistics show that diversity accompanies the decline in both Europe and America.
Heiveiu- Leger
-
Spirtual shopping
- religion has changed by becoming individualised so there has been a decline in institutional religion. Religion has changed due to 'cultural amnesia' so religion is no longer handed down from generation to generation as religion has changed in western households.
This is cricised by Jesus camp as fundamentalist Christians pass on traditional beliefs onto their children.
Secularisation
Secularization thesis: "
The process whereby religious beliefs, practices and institutions loose social significance
."
Bryan Wilson(1966)
Beliefs:
Gill et al(1998)
asked 'would you you consider yourself as being of any religious denomination?' 23% replied no in 1950 but 43% replied no in 1996
Practices: 6.3% of adults went church in 2005 but by 2015 it will be 4.7%. In 1971 3/5 weddings happened in church, but in 2006 the proportion was 1/3.
Institutions: Number of people who work in church has declined from 45000 in 1900 to 34000 in 2000 and less people were baptised.


Founding fathers
All argue
secularisation
was inevitable.
Max Weber
- Secularisation was formed through the gradual reduction in the importance of faith and increased emphasis of knowledge based on evidence. The cause of secularisation is the development of science and the rational nature of the capitalist society.
Karl Marx
- Secularisation was formed by the complete disapprearence of religion, as it is no longer needed in society. The cause of secularisation is the eventual development of communism.
Emile Durkheim
- Secularisation was formed by the gradual reduction in the importance of religion for providing shared beliefs. Education would take the place of religion and the religious world would still survive but have fewer social functions. The cause of secularisation is an increase in organic solidarity (based on mutual dependence) so industrialisation leads to a greater division of labour.
For and against
For
State religion and disastablishment In Sweden 71.3% of the population went to church but in 2009 only 20% shared the same beliefs as the church. People were forced to go to church.
Bruce(1999)
"religion in Europe s declined in power, prestige and popularity."
Heelas and Woodhead(2003)
- The spiritual revolution (Kendal project)- religion is in decline and new age movements are increasing.

But new age movements have increased creating new forms of religion
Rodney Stark(1999)
only the participation of religion is in decline.
But religious participation in the US has trebled.
Militant secularisation
- it is an approach where people want total separation of religion from all aspects of public life. e.g. Richard Dawkins. Separation of church and state consist of the government, laws and the police. Effecting policies involving abortion, drugs, tax and contraception.

Against
Grace Davie(1994)
Religiosity in Britan since 1945: Believing without belonging. People going to church is in decline but personal religiosity is not in decline and 3/4 of adults have strong religious beliefs
Cultural defence and transition
-
Bruce
argues more cultural defence and transition is associated with more religious participation
Emile Durkheim(1915)
-
Collective consciousness
- religion source of social stability, as it enforces social integration reminding the individual of the power and importance of society.
Totemism
study of australian aborigines worship society (solidarity and belonging).
Tolcott Parsons(1967)
-

Sacrillised norms and values
- religion helps people for unseen events. Foundations of religion are: creates legitimate norms and values and it is a primary source of meanings and answers. e.g
Islamic
Robert Ballah(1970)
-

Civil religion
- a belief system that attaches 'sacred' qualities to society itself. expressed via
ritualism
(loyalty to the nations) and
functional alternatives
(different non religious beliefs and practices). e.g.
Football
Religion is not a source of change, conflict or inequality.
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