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Transcript of Manifest Destiny
Many events led to the expansion of America. Beginning with the acquisition of land after the Revolution to lands obtained after the Texas and Mexican Wars, and in between the Louisiana Purchase which doubled the size of America literally overnight.
A result of Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Became a state on December 14, 1819
Belief God ordain that the country must expand its boundaries from the East Coast to the West Coast
Eli Whitney – interchangeable parts
1832 – Samuel Morse – telegraph & Morse code
1793 – Eli Whitney –
36°30‘N – above the line was closed to slaver; below the line open to slavery
Maine would be a free state & Missouri would become a slave state
aka "Old Hickory"
Known as the people's president.
INstituted changes such as,
National Nominating Comventionss
Spoils System - practice of appointing supporters jobs
Orphaned @ age 14
Received little formal education; but taught himself law and practiced law in TN.
Elected as Tennessee’s 1st Congressman @ age 30
Lead the troops to victory at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812
Became President in 1828
Issued on December 2, 1823:
the U.S. will “not be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power.” - keep European powers out of America
To prevent any other power from interfering in Latin American affairs
As Americans moved west, the government realized that in order to encourage western settlement, that transportation had to be improved.
1806 – Congress funded the building of a major highway that would run east to west
Construction took place from 1811 – 1818
By 1821 – 4,000 toll roads had been built
1807 – Robert Fulton – steamboa
Scottish man John Fitch - Design Sketch ca. 1787
Tom Thumb & The Iron Horse Race
1830 – Peter Cooper built “Tiny Thumb” – a small but powerful locomotive
Iron Horse Race
Industrial Revolution – began in England in the middle 1700’s
Led to factories & moved into America in the 1800’s
Slater’s Mill – 1st Factory was established in RI
Eli Whitney – interchangeable parts
1832 – Samuel Morse – telegraph & Morse code
1793 – Eli Whitney – Cotton Gin
Patent – a writing securing to an inventor for a term of years the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention; a written document making a conveyance or transfer of public lands
The National Nominating Convention
Caucus system – a parties congressmen would select their parties presidential candidates
Jacksonians replaced the caucus system w/ the National Nominating Convention – delegates from each state gathered to decide on the party’s presidential nominee to ensure that power came from the people & not elite political institutions
South Carolina threatens to secede from the Union – why?
National tariffs made trade w/ Britain expensive
1828 - another new tariff passed congress aka Tariff of Abominations
Vice Pres. John C. Calhoun – S. Carolina resident – proposed nullification states have the right to declare a federal law null & void, led to major debates on the floor of Congress
1832 – another tariff law passed, lowering the tariffs
Nov. 1832 – So. Carolina declared the tariffs of 1828 & 1832 to be unconstitutional
Jackson considered this an act of treason & sent a warship to Charleston
1833 – Congress passes the Force Bill – authorizing the President to use the military to enforce acts of Congress
Senator Henry Clay – pushed through Congress a bill that gradually lowered tariffs unitl 1842
So. Carolina repealed their nullification
Indian Removal Act
1838 Pres. Van Buren sent an army to force Native Americans to move west
Most Cherokee gave up & left their homes
Forced to an Oklahoma reservation
About 2000 died waiting for the trip to begin
Another 2000 died of starvation, disease & exposure during their journey
Trail of Tears
Passed in 1830
Provided money for the relocation of Native Americans
Most gave in a moved
some did not
Worchester v Georgia (aka Cherokee Nation v Georgia)
1832 Chief John Marshall ordered state officials to honor Cherokee property rights; Georgia & the President didn’t support the ruling
Wetumka, Oklahoma is named after Wetumpka, Alabama after the forced relocation of the Alabama Creek Indians.
Elected President – 1840
Inaugurated March 4, 1841
Delivered a 2 hour speech w/out his coat or hat
Died of pneumonia 32 days later
V.P. John Tyler became President
The Accidental President
Opposed many Whig policies
Had run on the Whig ticket just to get Southern votes
Called, Tyler, “His Accidency”
Dispute between Great Britain & the US
Led to Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Established a firm line between the U.S. & Canada from Maine to Minnesota
Almost 2 million
came to America
1845 – Potato Famine
Destroyed most of Ireland crops, the main diet of the Irish
Left many destitute and starving
In America, settled in the Northeast
Leaving for America
1815 – 1860 – 2nd largest group of immigrants
By 1860 – 1.5 million Germans had immigrated to America
Most had money & moved to the mid-west
Reveled in their
freedom & liberty
Hostility toward foreigners
1849 Supreme Order of the Star Spangled Banner formed
Banned to never vote for Catholics & pushed for legislation to prevent Catholics from holding office
July, 1854 formed the American Party
Party membership secret
“I know Nothing” nicknamed the Know-Nothing party
Second Great Awakening
Early 1800s – religious leaders organized to revive American’s religious commitment
Began in Kentucky – spread to the rest of America
Methodist, Baptist, & Presbyterians –
held camp meetings
Days of song,
outpouring of faith
1800’s led to the rise of mass newspapers
Cost -6¢ - average American couldn’t afford
Publishers began publishing inexpensive papers
Reported fires, crimes, marriages, gossip, politics, and local news
Godey’s Lady’s Book – 1st women’s magazine
Atlantic Monthly – magazine for the well-educated
Harper’s Weekly – covered everything from books to news reports
Dorothea Dix – prison reform & helped mentally ill
Horace Mann – education reform
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell – 1st Woman doctor
Seneca Falls Convention
“I appear before the immense assembly this evening as a thief and a robber. I stole this head, these limbs, this body from my master and ran off with them” ~ 1842, Mass.
Published an antislavery newspaper
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas
Gained freedom in 1827 when New York freed all remaining slaves
1840s –delivered many eloquent speeches on slavery
The Liberator – William Lloyd Garrison attacked the institution of slavery & called for an immediate end to the institution
August 22, 1831, he led a group of African Americans in Virginia in an uprising against whites. They killed 50 men, women, and children.
He was tried and hanged
Many Southerners believed that anti-slavery newspapers, such as The Liberator, caused these uprisings
Travel . . . How long did it take?
Emigrants thought the Great Plains had poor soil for farming
Native Americans & others nations had already claimed parts of Oregon & California
U.S. & Great Britain both wanted to own Oregon
American missionaries encouraged many Easterners to settle in southern Oregon
Mountain men forged a trail from east to west, known as the Oregon Trail
First to take the journey . . .
The Donner Party
An American Tragedy
The journey west on the Oregon Trail was exceptionally difficult by today's standards. One in 10 died along the way; many walked the entire two-thousand miles barefoot. The common misperception is that Native Americans were the emigrant's biggest problem en route. Quite the contrary, most native tribes were quite helpful to the emigrants. The real enemies of the pioneers were cholera, poor sanitation and--surprisingly--accidental gunshots.
The first emigrants to go to Oregon in a covered wagon were Marcus and Narcissa Whitman who made the trip in 1836. But the big wave of western migration did not start until 1843, when about a thousand pioneers made the journey.
Some went all the way to Oregon's Willamette Valley in search of farmland--many more split off for California in search of gold.
Over 40 died & many of the remaining members resorted to cannibalism in order to survive the harsh winter. (see handout)
California here we come . . .
Mexico controlled California
Distance from Mexico City made it difficult to govern
1839 – CA governor wanted more settlers
Granted 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter
Sutter built a trading post & cattle ranch
Forty-niners; traveled in covered wagons pulled by mules.
Few rode horses.
Once they passed frontier towns like Independence, Missouri, they entered the wilderness.
Many were from cities like Boston or New York.
Had never camped outdoors, hunted for food, or built a fire.
49ers crossed the Forty Mile Desert (a hot, dry wasteland between the Humboldt and Carson rivers in present-day Nevada)
Some people brought enough water for the crossing, others paid for this with their lives.
Beyond the Forty Mile Desert, lay California, the land of gold.
Some would find their fortunes there; most would not.
Last 2 slides: http://pbskids.org/wayback/goldrush/journey_oregon.html
Gold Rush, cont.
The Mormon Trail
1844 – murderous mobs killed Joseph Smith.
Brigham Young, new Mormon leader, decided to move his congregation, where else – the WEST.
Several thousand emigrated along the Mormon Trail.
1847 – Mormons stopped @ the Great Salt Lake to build their settlement.
Trail of Hope
Mormon taking the Trail . . .
THE TRAIL EXPERIENCE The Mormon pioneers shared similar experiences with others traveling west: the drudgery of walking hundreds of miles, suffocating dust, violent thunderstorms, mud, temperature extremes, bad water, poor forage, sickness, and death. They recorded their experiences in journals, diaries, and letters that have become a part of our national heritage.
A unique feature of the Mormon migration was their use of handcarts. Handcarts, two-wheeled carts that were pulled by emigrants, instead of draft animals, were sometimes used as an alternate means of transportation from 1856 to 1860. They were seen as a faster, easier and cheaper way to bring European converts to Salt Lake City. Almost 3,000 Mormons, with 653 carts and 50 supply wagons, traveling in 10 different companies, made the trip over the trail to Salt Lake City. While not the first to use handcarts, they were the only group to use them extensively.
Why . . .
was the Mormon Trail so vital to America?
Because the trail became a valuable route into the western United States and allowed for the settlement of this area.
If you were there?
What would you do for fun while traveling along the pioneer trails?
“We had a difficult time to find a way down the [Sierra Nevada] mountains . . . We were then out of provisions, having killed and eaten all our cattle. I walked barefeeted until my feet were blistered and lived on roasted acorns for two days.”Nancy Kelsie
Early 1800s, Southerns were angry over run-way slaves heading to Spanish-held Florida. They were also upset over the Seminoles using Florida as a base to stage raids on Georgia settlements.
Americans could not cross the border into Spanish Territory, but in 1818, General Andrew Jackson seized Spanish settlements in Florida and removed the Florida governor from power.
In the Treaty of Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain ceded all of Florida to the United States and finalized the western border of the Louisiana Purchase.
Proposed in 1808 and completed in 1825, the canal links the waters of Lake Erie in the west to the Hudson River in the east.
In order to open the country west of the Appalachian Mountains to settlers and to offer a cheap and safe way to carry produce to a market. It was not until 1808 that the state legislature funded a survey for a canal that would connect to Lake Erie. In those early days, it was often "sarcastically" referred to as "Clinton's Big Ditch". It included 18 aqueducts to carry the canal over ravines and rivers, and 83 locks, with a rise of 568 feet from the Hudson River to Lake Erie. It was 4 feet deep and 40 feet wide, and floated boats carrying 30 tons of freight. A ten foot wide towpath was built along the bank of the canal for the horses and/or mules which pulled the boats and their driver, often a young boy (sometimes referred to by later writers as a "hoggee").
Railroads were built during the early 1800s in order to help settle the western territories and states. These also helped to establish national markets by making transportation cheaper & increased the demand for iron and coal.
Manifest Destiny would spur Americans to move further west and not only increase tension with the Native, but also lead to the opening of many trails west. Wagon trains, walking on foot, and horseback would take many pioneers through treacherous terrain and dangerous conditions, such as harsh weather and lack of water. As new inventions became available to the general public and improvements were made to roads, river travel, and eventually railways, the idea of Manifest Destiny was a lot easier to obtain.
Most information was obtained from: "Daily Lecture & Discussion Notes", The American Vision, Glenco/The McGraw-Hill Companies:New York
Images were obtained from Google Images
Faced months far from civilization.
32,000 + gold-seekers went West on the trail
Endured violent thunderstorms, torrential rain, and scorching heat.
Traveled mile after mile of bumpy trails that choked their throats with dust in dry weather and turned to mud holes when rain fell.
Many lost their belongings and even their lives trying to cross rivers such as the Platte, the Green, and the Bear.
Many feared attack by Native American; this seldom happened.
Disease was the biggest killer: cholera, mountain fever, pneumonia, and diphtheria.