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The 13 colonies.
Transcript of The 13 colonies.
They didn’t submit themselves to British laws
They founded 13 colonies in the Eastern part of the United States.
Started as a result of the explorations made by the British Crown and by private firms.
These territories (the east of the US) were not significant for the UK. The Crown gives the right to private companies, to exploit and foster the development of the new territories.
The Virginina Company is the most important promotor of the colonies. It offered all kind of freedoms, particularly religious freedom.
Some of the North American territories were given to noble englishmen as a payment for different kind of favours.
The companies offered free land in exchange for a certain period of years.
Idea of individual freedom.
The dominant social class was the bourgeouisie, composed of businessmen.
The agricultural products that they grew the most were tobacco in the north and cotton in the south.
For 7 years, England was at war with France for territories in Canada called Terranova and Nova Scotia
Each part asked for help from the indians that lived in this territory.
They promised the indians that they would let them live on the lands. This never happened.
In 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed, in which France gave Great Britain the Canadian territories and others.
The colonists that had supported England were denied entry into the new territories and were prohibited from opening new manufacturing plants.
They imposed new taxes.
IMPOSED: STAMP LAW
Every document had to have a stamp in order for it to be considered “legal”.
TAX ON TEA
The tea was sold by English merchants, they resold it to merchant colonists, and they in turn sold to store owners.
England removed the intermediaries, so that the colonists wouldn’t be able to earn money.
There were protests and they threw the entire tea cargo of 3 ships into the sea, (the Boston Tea Party).
The English goverment sent troops to the colonies.
The colonists wanted to have their own representatives in the English parliament.
“No taxation without representation
1st--1774, they wanted the protection of the crown. They decided to boycott English products. They didn’t speak of independence.
2nd--1775, The creation of a colonial army, with George Washington as the commander-in-chief
3rd--1776, Declaration of Independence.
CONGRESSES IN PHILADELPHIA
Signed in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
National sovereignty: A goverment must have the consent of the people it governs, and the people have the right to remove and replace a government if it doesn’t fulfill the people’s rights.
Inalienable Rights: You can’t take away, from anybody, their rights to: freedom, equality before the law, security, happiness, etc.
THE “AMERICAN” REVOLUTION / WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE
Thomas Jefferson – political thinker, wrote the Declaration of Independence or Declaration of Rights.
George Washington – military general and first president of the U.S.A.
Benjamin Franklin – scientist, ambassador to France, asked for economic help.
Victory in Saratoga in 1777.
France and Spain helped the colonists, because they wanted to weaken Great Britain.
Great Britain is defeated after 5 years of war.
Treaty of Paris, 1783, Great Britain recognizes the Independence of the United States of America.
1787 – Approval of the first Constitution as a Federal, Democratic Republic, with a division of powers.
1789 – George Washington becomes first President.
The United States becomes an example of a free country for Europe and other colonies in the Americas