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Kinetic and Potential Energy
Transcript of Kinetic and Potential Energy
By Olivia, Sophie, and Sam
What is Friction?
Friction= a force that holds back the movement of a sliding/moving object
Always acts in the opposite direction the object is moving in
Friction is pushing down on another object/not being able to just slide past
Friction is could also be the force when two surfaces more/try to move accross eachother.
The amount of friction=based on the texture and force pushing on both of the surfaces.
Can create heat, like if you rub your hands together.
Rolling helps reduce
So balls and wheels help reduce friction
Friction is related to kinetic energy because, friction can slow down the kinitic energy in an object. Friction is related to potential energy becuase the more friction, the more heat and the potnetial energy is being waisted on heat.
Potential Energy Continued/How to Calculate it
Potential and kinetic energy should be similar at the kinetic energy’s maximum point (ex. skiing, kinetic energy at its maximum is at the bottom of the slope)
PE=Mass * Gravity * Height
What is Potential Energy?
Stored energy of an object due to condition and position
The energy that takes place before kinetic energy
ex. going up a ski lift, then going down the slope
Mass and height affect potential energy
Potential for movement=potential for energy
What are the types of Potential Energy?
* Gravitational energy: energy stored in an object’s height (position and location, where the object is, high up and how far it is from the reference point) (reference point=beginnings position or where you are measuring from) the higher and heavier the object, the more gravitational energy is stored ex. bike going down a steep hill
Kinetic energy is energy in motion
Kinetic energy is using the energy saved up with potential energy.
There are many different types of kinetic energy that we will talk about later in our presentation.
being able to do work and how things can “change and move”, takes energy to do everything
two main kinds of energy: (down)
Ex: Bakes cake in oven
Freezes ice in freezer
Makes light in our homes
Running a race
Walking to school
Potential energy is energy that is being saved or stored.
Ex: Like pulling a rubber band before slingshotting it the part when pulling the rubber band is potential energy
Many different kidns of potential energy that we will talk about later in our presentation.
Ex: Like a roller coaster top of hill saving energy to go down the hill
Resistence right before letting everything go (down a hill) .
Going down the hill, the roller coaster uses the potential energy that it received while going up the hill and transfers it to kinetic energy
Kinetic energy is using the energy saved up with potential energy.
Ex: Going down the rollercoaster hill using the energy saved up with potential energy so Kinetic energy.
1. What do you know about potential and kinetic energy?
2. What is friction?
Time for an Assessment!
1. How can potential and kinetic energy affect your daily life?
2. What are some examples of everday activites that involve potential and kinetic energy?
Different kinds of Friction
Students will understand potential and kinetic energy, as well as friction, in order to apply their learning to an activity, assessment, and real life.
Different Types of Kinetic Energy
Radiant Energy: visible light, x-rays, gamma waves, and radio waves
Thermal Energy: heat, or the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within an object
Motion Energy: energy stored in the movement of objects
Sound: movement of energy through substances in longitudal waves
Electrical Energy: delivered by small charged electrons which are usually moving through a wire
How to Calculate Kinetic Energy
Please go sit with your groups:
Group 1: Caitlyn, Quentin, Leena
Group 2: Jack W., Anna, Kyle
Group 3: Charlie, Hadley, Ben
Group 4: Lilly, Jack O'B, Sophie
The formula for calulating kinetic energy at a certain point is:
½ * mass * velocity²
* The unit for measuring both kinetic and potential energy is Joules.
* Mass is measured in kilograms and velocity is measured in meters per second.
* So, a boulder rolling down a hill will have more kinetic energy than a rock.
* Also, a car traveling at 30 mph will have more kinetic energy then the same car traveling at 20 mph.
Static friction acts on objects when they are resting on a surface.
If you are hiking, evry time you put your food down on the trail, there is static friction between your feet and the path.
How Kinetic Energy Transfers to Heat
When two objects are rubbed together, small irregularities in the objects get caught in one another
If they continue to be rubbed, either the small parts break off, or the don’t
If the don’t break off, those small pieces spring back and wobble a little bit
This wobbling is then transferred to other molecules
Heat is quite simply a measure of the number of molecules bouncing back and forth so heat is produced so heat is kinetic energy at the atomic level
Some energy is always lost by friction as transferred into heat, therefore an object in motion will never reach it original height without additional forces.
Sliding Friction is the friction where an object is sliding across a surface.
Like a book sliding accross a table, there is sliding friction between the table and the book.
Learn about potential and kinetic energy in a lecture
Apply your findings to a fun and educational activity and assessment
For example, when you rub your hands together, heat is produced.
Fluid Friction acts on objects that are moving through fluids
If you try to push your hand through water, there is fluid friction between your hand and the water
Rolling friction is friction that acts on objects when they are rolling over a surface
When you are riding your bike on a sidewalk, it shows rolling friction between the wheeles and the sidewalk.
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* Chemical energy: energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules ex. batteries, biomass, petroleum, natural gas, coal (can be converted to thermal energy)
* Mechanical (elastic) energy: energy stored in objects by tension ex. rubber bands, roller coaster
* Nuclear energy: energy stored in the nucleus of an atom
Other types of Potential Energy
Ex: If you are moving in a car and there is a stop sign and the car stops, the stopping motion is friction between brakes and wheels
Ex: If you are running and you want to stop quickly, when you stop there is friction between your shoes and the sidewalk.
Also when between two objects there is water, friction is alot less.