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3D Printing

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Harry Carpenter

on 27 April 2014

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Transcript of 3D Printing

Ideas Generation
Contour Crafting
Interpretation of Trend
Further Research and Insight
Concept Outline:
What is Contour Crafting?
Smart Taxis
Personalised BillBoard Advertsing
Energy Bill Monitoring System
3D Printing
Invention Vs Innovation
Currently used in business
Commercialization for particular market
Analogy of insight
Observation and extended ideas
Key Trend
Increasing Demand for Social Housing
The lack of social housing to meet demand of the growing population has lead to 1.8m households waiting for social homes in 2014 (Shelter, 2014).
From 2009 to 2010 only 115,000 new homes were built (Shelter, 2014).
Contour Crafting
The increase in stricter mortgage requirements has lead to the reduction of new homes being built (Parliament, 2010).
The government has announced a new building fund of £500m for affordable housing (Mintel, 2014).
Economic Growth - demand for housing is dependent upon income (Higher economic growth equals higher incomes and the ability to spend more on housing, does however raise house prices) (Economics Help, 2014).
Unemployment - when unemployment is high less people can afford to enter the property market (Economics Help, 2014).
2.39m people unemployed in the UK.

4500 households were placed in bed & breakfasts during 2012/2013.
100 local authorities placed 16 to 17 year old teenagers in B&B facilities (BBC, 2013).
Construction of a single family home generates large amounts of waste.
350,000 incidents of pollution every year (Environment Agency, 2014).
Waste caused by the global construction industry
(Willmott Dixon, 2010)
Timeline adapted from The Guardian, 2014.

Local authorities are legally obliged to provide housing under the rule of Lloyd George (British PM 1916-22).
The Conservatives came to power with a pledge to build 300,000 new houses a year. Tower blocks were utilized in order to resolve the demand of post war housing.
The tower blocks, once named the streets in the sky, fell into decay and lawlessness. Corruption resulted in shoddy standards of housing being built. It was against this backdrop that 'right to buy' began to take off. By 1979 nearly 46,000 council houses were being sold yearly.
1980s, 1990s, 2000s
Through the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s the right to buy concept boomed especially when championed by Tony Blair from 1997 to 2007, this lead to massive depletion in council housing stock.
2007 - 2010
The growth in asylum seekers and economic migrants towards the end of Labour's time in power added massive pressure to the housing system. Attempts by Gordon Brown between 2007 and 2010 to replenish the council housing stock were considered by many too little too late, this coupled with the near collapse of the banking system ended the hopes of many on average incomes ever owning their own homes.
Currently the supply of council housing is not meeting demand. To make up for the loss of construction during the recession period up to 290,000 additional homes may be needed in each year up until 2031. According to the housing charity Shelter there are currently 1.8m households waiting for social housing.
Physical Evidence
A product must be kept up to date with technological advancements and changes in consumer preferences in order to be of value to a customer (Jobber, 2009).
The product and service provided will be construction of social housing by using efficient production methods that include Contour Crafting.
The services offered directly with the product are:
Personalised design, owing to the ability to customize designs.
Construction of a house including all features, for example electrical wiring and plumbing.
Consumer satisfaction is very important in order to gain competitive advantage, therefore the process of giving a service is an important element of the marketing mix.
Showcasing of marketing suite using Contour Crafting.
Efficient development of housing by meeting deadlines will create favorability towards Contour Crafting.
Promotion of sustainability in the development process will create a positive brand image.
According to Harvard Business Review 2013: the benefits of a strong corporate culture can account for 20 to 30% of the differential in corporate performance when compared with 'culturally unremarkable' competitors.
Three components that create strong corporate culture include:
The drive to make a difference, caring, environmentally conscious.
Distribution channel: Lack of social housing is most prominent in London, with the capital needing more than 185,000 properties to cope with its shortfall (University of Cambridge, 2013). This creates a strong distribution center for 3D Homes, allowing us to target multiple London boroughs.
A marketing suite complete with full scale 3D Home and competent sales team located at the center of the capital.
'A sales force can offer a means of creating a differential advantage particularly when products are similar' (Jobber 2010).
Sales team that would commute to potential clients located around the country.

The current portion of expenditure on the cost of construction
20%-25% Financing
25%-30% Materials
45%-55% Labour

Reductions in waste, project times and labour.
Penetrative pricing strategy.
Contour Crafting constructs housing is significantly more cost effective than the standard building process, initial start-up costs like manufacturing machinery, transportation, offices and red tape will mean that profit margins may not be met until the latter years.

According to UK (parliament 2014) supply of housing not keeping up with demand, leading to social and economic implications.
overcrowding in social housing impacts residents health and educational attainment.
Poor housing can have the following impacts on tenants and wider communities (Shelter, 2014):
Higher risk of severe ill health and disability.
Crime and offending related to poor housing conditions amount to £200m in costs PA.
Correlation between poor housing conditions and educational under achievement.
poor housing amounts to £14.8 bn in lost earnings for this generation
Future Developments
Typical 3D printing is set to be in use on the international space station from Autumn 2014 (space.com 2013).

As 3D printing and contour crafting becomes an integral part of modern construction new legislation may be required to protect the rights of certain architecture and design to limit or even eradicate copying.
There are currently around 37 million uprooted people in the world, forced to flee from their homes and seek shelter elsewhere, usually because of war, economic or natural disaster. (Contour Crafting, 2014).
Contour Crafting technology can deliver strong dignified houses to disaster victims very rapidly. 2,000 square foot house with all utilities for electrical and plumbing in less than 24 hours. (Contour Crafting, 2014)
Due to the rising demand for housing within the UK, housing costs have risen rapidly resulting in an overall ‘affordability crisis’ (Shelter, 2010).
Used for the colonisation of Mars in 2023. According to Contour Crafting (2014) the technology has the ability to build safe and reliable lunar structures.

According to The Guardian (2013) the housing market seems to be following a more resilient upward trend.

Marketing Suite
469,843 migrants that moved to the UK in between 2001 and 2011 were allocated housing. (Daily Mail, 2013)

“Britain’s social housing stock remains large, accounting for 18% of all homes. True, this is down sharply from 32% in 1981, with around 1.8m homes privatised under the Right to Buy policy" (Heath, 2013)
3D printing has been further developed into contour crafting.
As identified by the UK parliament (2014) the need to increase the supply of housing and tackle affordability problems is a key housing policy issue.
Both leading political parties’ manifestos have expressed a commitment to ensuring the number of homes owned continuously increases to combat the growing population (Parliament UK, 2010).
“In 2007 the Government set a target of increasing the supply of housing to 240,000 additional homes per year by 2016. Within this overall target was a commitment to deliver at least 70,000 affordable homes per year by 2010-11, of which 45,000 were to be new social rented homes” (Parliament UK, 2010).
Contour crafting requires already existing technologies to design, transport and operate on site (CAD software, Heavy goods vehicles, Concrete mixers).
Insurance claims: Accidents due to design faults, who is to blame?
Structural regulations not met: maintenance, hazards and planning permission.
Implementation of new regulations to cover new technologies- Ensuring safety to users.

Planning permission- Natural land.
In the city any residential development of 12 or more properties requires at least 25% to be approved as affordable housing in order to gain planning permission.
“If we don’t tackle the fact we’re still not building enough homes, we’ll just create another housing bubble that will continue to push house prices up and out of reach of the majority.” (National Housing Federation, 2013)
According to jobber (2010) Physical evidence is any tangible goods that facilitate the performance and communication of a service.
Customers determine the quality of a service by examining the physical evidence provided to them.
Physical evidence will be extremely important for 3D Homes as it will provide customers that will be buying into a new and relatively unknown concept with tangible reassurance of the service and end product that will be delivered.
Physical evidence provided for the customer by 3D homes will be divided into three stages of reception:
Pre build
During Build
Post build
3D Homes will be promoted utilising the following promotional tools:
Full transcript