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Grammar Unit-Sentence Structure

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by

Alyssa Spang

on 5 October 2015

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Transcript of Grammar Unit-Sentence Structure

Grammar Unit Lesson 1- Basic Sentence Structure
Clauses: the building blocks of sentences
Independent Clause
Simple Sentence
Stands alone
Subject and predicate
Example: The whole class laughed.
Dependent/Subordinate Clause
Contains a subject and a predicate
Cannot stand alone
Because the whole class laughed...
Relative Clause (adjective clause)
Contains a subject and a predicate
Modifies a noun
The cookies that are sitting on the table will not last long.
Adjunct Clause (auxiliary/extra information)
Contains a subject and a verb
Contains extra information that may be removed
The cookies were eaten because they were delicious.
Simple Sentence
Contains one independent clause
The sun rose.
I like coffee.
The Abigails like running and skipping.
Compound Sentence
Contains 2 independent clauses
Alex has broken nine bones, but Alex still plays soccer.
Alex has broken nine bones; Alex still plays soccer.
Comma use:
Use a comma...
to separate two independent clauses
to separate a dependent clause from an independent clause when the dependent clause is at the beginning of the sentence
before a quotation
to separate a noun phrase from the rest of the sentence
Complex Sentence
One independent clause and one dependent clause
I love smoothies that contain honey.
Compound-complex sentence
Contains at least two independent clauses and one dependent clause
The movie was very good, but the book, which was better, had a wider audience.
Direct Object: the noun or noun phrase receiving the action

Example: Anne hit Gilbert with her slate.
Anne hit who? Gilbert. Gilbert is the direct object
Indirect Object: the noun that receives the direct object
Example: The student wrote a paper for the teacher for a letter grade.
Gerund
a verb made into a noun by adding "ing"

EXAMPLES:

The enjoy eating.

She enjoys reading.

He enjoys running.
Appositive
An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it
EXAMPLES:

My sister, a nurse, works in a hospital.

Willow, the floppy-eared dog, frequently runs into the English classroom.


Adjectival Phrases, Participles, & Infinitives
Adjectival phrase
-a phrase used as an adj.



EXAMPLE: The coat that draped over the chair will most likely end up in the lost & found.

Participle
-three functions in sentences. They can be components of multipart verbs, or they can function as adjectives or nouns.

EXAMPLES: I was sleeping when I missed the phone call from my mother.

The running children chased down the ice cream truck.

Crying sometimes makes my throat sore.
Infinitive
-will almost always begin with to followed by the simple form of the verb, like this:

To + Verb = Infinitive


to run, to play, to dream, to dance, to go, to sing, to fight, to anger, to hide, to sit, to stand...etc...
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