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Presentation: The Artificial Eye

End presentation for the course Artificial Organs

Esma Islamaj

on 3 May 2013

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Transcript of Presentation: The Artificial Eye

"If you see it is impossible
you must use others' eyes"

RWTH Aachen - Artificial Organs Lenses Glass Eyes Bionic Eyes Argus II Disorders that destruct Vision References Aniridia - (partial) absence of the iris
Aphakia - absence of lens
Best's disease, Stargardt's Disease, Macular hole - degeneration of Macula
Choroideremia - loss of Choroid
Conerod dystrophy - deterioration of cones and rods
Cortical visual impairment - damage of brain related to vision De Morsier's Syndrome - optic nerve is underdeveloped
Leber's congenital amaurosis, Retinitis pigmentosa, Retinal detachment - degeneration of retina
Scotoma - gap or blind spot in field of vision Camera systems Video Processing Systems Stimulation algorithms and hardware - Simple camera integrated in glasses - Biomimetic approaches: The Eyeball camera Camera systems - Uniform focus plane
- Wide FOV
- Simple optics
- Integrated hydraulic zoom - Cheap
- Simple concept
- Comfortable Planar camera Hemispherical camera Video Processing Systems Retinal Stimulation - pixel parameters - frame parameters Stimulation Parameters - Stimulation parameters and strategies

- Digital controllers for stimulation

- Stimulation electrode arrays Digital Controllers Electrode Arrays THE BIONIC EYE Implantable telescope
Artificial Iris Cortivis Esthetic prosthesis Cortical implants IMPLANTABLE TELESCOPE - Advanced Macular Degeneration (AMD) patients.
- Enlarges image or projects focus plane on retinal area with less degeneration. -Cathodic current
- Anodic current
- The intraphase delay - several scanning patterns Active Passive Genetic: Aniridia
Removing a Tumor
Trauma after an Accident
people with Albinism Iris implant by surgery Contact lens with LCD display Colored contact lenses static, not adaptable
dangerous surgery Disadvantages: static, not adaptable
easy to loose Disadvantages: Iris damage: Used for - user friendly, efficient, light
- optimal processing algorithms: Biomimetics
- algorithms to increase stimulation resolution: Virtual electrodes CORTICAL STIMULATION - For profoundly blind patients
- Basic concept: topological organization of the visual cortex Cortivis Susan A. Primo, Implantable miniature telescope: Lessons learned, Optometry - Journal of the American Optometric Association, February 2010

S.S. Lane, B.D. Kuppermann, I.H. Fine, M.B. Hamill, J.F. Gordon, R.S. Chuck, R.S. Hoffman, M. Packer, D.D. Koch, A prospective multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the implantable miniature telescope, American Journal of Ophthalmology, June 2004

S.S. Maniccam, N.G. Bourbakis, Image and video encryption using SCAN patterns, Pattern Recognition, April 2004

Francisco J. Pelayo, Samuel Romero, Christian A. Morillas, Antonio Martı́nez, Eduardo Ros, Eduardo Fernández, Translating image sequences into spike patterns for cortical neuro-stimulation, Neurocomputing,June 2004

Second Sight Medical Products Inc., ArgusTM II Retinal Stimulation System Feasibility Protocol, August 2010

Chen, Kuanfu and Liu, Wentai, Highly programmable digital controller for high-density epi-retinal prosthesis, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2009

Ko, Heung Cho and Stoykovich, Mark P and Song, Jizhou and Malyarchuk, Viktor and Choi, Won Mook and Yu, Chang-Jae and Geddes Iii, Joseph B and Xiao, Jianliang and Wang, Shuodao and Huang, Yonggang et. al., A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics, Nature, 2008

Jung, Inhwa and Xiao, Jianliang and Malyarchuk, Viktor and Lu, Chaofeng and Li, Ming and Liu, Zhuangjian and Yoon, Jongseung and Huang, Yonggang and Rogers, John A, Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011

Greenberg, Robert J and Williamson, Richard P and Schulman, Joseph H and Rassool, Reza P and Mandell, Lee J and Seidman, Abraham N, Video processing methods for improving visual acuity and/or perceived image resolution, United States Patents, 2005

Lauritzen, Thomas Z and Harris, Jordan and Mohand-Said, Saddek and Sahel, Jose A and Dorn, Jessy D and McClure, Kelly and Greenberg, Robert J, Reading visual braille with a retinal prosthesis, Frontiers in neuroscience, 2011

Rizzo, Joseph F and Wyatt, John and Loewenstein, John and Kelly, Shawn and Shire, Doug, Methods and perceptual thresholds for short-term electrical stimulation of human retina with microelectrode arrays, Investigative ophthalmology and visual science, 2003

Jelle De smet, Herbert De Smet, A. Avci, Roel Beernaert, Dieter Cuypers, Design and Wrinkling Behavior of a Contact Lens With an Integrated Liquid Crystal Light Modulator, UGent, Imec, Journal of display technology, Vol. 8, No 5, May 2012 APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION CONCLUSION Argus II 2013 2008 Eyeball camera Centrasight implantable telescope 2004 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Millenia B.C. Egyptians 1579
1st prosthesis
behind eyelids early 1800s 1850 Eye
USA German ocularist
Glass artificial eye 1940s Plastic
Eye artificial
brain implant Solution for almost every eye disease

Also blind people or people who are born without eyes

Durability is getting better - Today, most artificial eyes are made of plastic, with an average life of about 10 years

Image quality will keep getting better - as semiconductor technology continues to pack silicon chips with more power. In 10 years it might be good enough that users will blend into the crowd. In 20 years, the acuity of artificial vision might rival that of a biological eye

Because of a lot of studies about the vision, we are able to optimize the vision system in general, survaliance as well as the artificial eye.

Surgery with risks

Though it may take several more years before a prosthesis will both look and see just like a natural eye

Still a lot of work to do 1960-1980
Full transcript