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Applied Behavior Analysis - Presentation
Transcript of Applied Behavior Analysis - Presentation
Analysis Alexa Pinkley
Samantha Key Premack Principle Positive Practice Shaping - Ignore inappropriate behaviors "Grandma's Rule" - Progress not perfection - Replacing incorrect with correct Encouraging Behavior Reinforcement is key - Attention/Praise - Premack Principle - Shaping - Positive Practice - Negative Reinforcement Handling Undesirable
Behavior - Reprimands - Response Cost - Social Isolation Negative
Reinforcement - Action that avoids something
unpleasant - Place student in unpleasant
situation - Can "escape" when behavior
improves Reprimands - Criticisms for misbehavior - Soft, calm, private most effective - Loud, public may increase or
continue disruptions Response Cost - Punishment by loss of reinforcers - Student breaks a rule, lose a
reinforcement - Work time - Privilege Social Isolation - Removal of disruptive student - 5 - 10 minutes - Empty, uninteresting room,
alone - Do not try longer time outs if behavior
does not improve - Placing student in corner of
classroom does not have same
effect - Correct behavior/mistake - practice
correct behavior/answer - Task Analysis: - Break down tasks - Pinpoint problem issues Successive Approximations - David Premack - "First, do what I want you to do, then
you may do what you want to do." - ___ frequency behavior (preferred activity) reinforces ___ frequency behavior (less preferred activity) Attention/Praise Differential Reinforcement - Reinforce appropriate behaviors -Given on good behavior - Be believable - Clearly specify the behavior that
was good Accentuate Positive - Ignore Negative Praise Putting It All Together:
Behavioral Approaches to Teaching - Practice does not make perfect. Practice makes
permanent. Group Consequences - Teachers might show/demonstrate how to give
support and constructive feedback to classmates
to set the example - Group Consequences are recommended when
students care about the approval of their peers. - Peer pressure in the form of support and
encouragement can be a positive influence Def: Rewards or punishments given to a class as a whole for adhering to or violating rules of conduct - Caution: The whole group should not suffer for the misbehavior or mistakes of one individual if the group has no real influence over that person. - “If Jamarcus, Evan, and Mei don’t get off their
mats until the end of nap time, then we will
have a special snack.” - A teacher, without breaking the class into groups,
can base reinforcement for the class on the
behavior of selected target students . The Good Behavior Game Def: Arrangement where a class is divided into teams and each team receives demerit points for breaking agreed-upon rules of good behavior. - The team with the fewest mistakes at the end of the time
period receives a reward/privilege - Can pre-establish a goal that if all teams achieve, then
everyone gets a reward Research: - Can produce significant improvements in the behaviors listed in
the good behavior rules, and can prevent many behavior
problems - The game only generates small improvements in academic
achievement Embry, D.D. (2002). The Good Behavior Game: A best practice candidate as a universal behavior vaccine. Clinical Chile and Family Psychology Review, 5, 273-297.
Tingstrom, D.H., Sterlling-Turner, H.E., & Wilczynski, S.M. (2006). The Good Behavior Game: 1962-2002. Behavior Modification, 30, 225-253. Contingency Contracts Def: A contract between the teacher and a student specifying what the student must do to earn a particular reward or privilege. - Either student or teacher can suggest behaviors to be
reinforced, and rewards gained. - The negotiation process can be an educational experience on
its own. Students learn to: - Info about progress can support student motivation - If student sets goals, they are more likely to be
committed to reaching them. - Set reasonable goals - Abide by rules in contract - Help keep track of assignments and due dates Token Reinforcement Alberto & Troutman (2006)
Kazdin (2001) Def: System in which tokens earned for academic work and positive classroom behavior can be exchanged for some desired reward. - Should be used in only 3 situations: - Students with intellectual disabilities, children who have failed often, students with few academic skills, and students with behavior problems all seem to respond to the concrete, direct nature of the token reinforcement. - To deal with a class that is out of control - To encourage students who have consistently failed to
make academic progress - To motivate students who are completely uninterested in
their work and have not responded to other approaches Cautions about Punishment - Doesn't teach students what to do
instead - Harsh punishment may encourage
retaliation - Focuses students on consequences for
themselves, not impact on others - Interferes with development of
relationships with students • Applied Behavior Analysis
The application of behavioral learning principles to understand and change behavior
• In classrooms, teachers can do the following:
Clearly specify the behavior to be changed and note the current level of it
Plan a specific intervention using their past history, consequences, or both.
Focus of our presentation
Keep track of the results, modify the plan if necessary (1) A student is kneeling on a chair, leaning over the table making faces at the other students while you, the teacher, are giving directions for a project.
What do you do?
(2)Your class just got done making an art project and there are supplies everywhere. The class is too excited about recess in a few minutes to care about the scraps of paper and paint all over the tables. How could you get the class to clean up? Scenarios (1) A student is kneeling on a chair, leaning over the table making faces at the other students while you, the teacher, are giving directions for a project. What do you do?
(2)Your class just got done making an art project and there are supplies everywhere. The class is too excited about recess in a few minutes to care about the scraps of paper and paint all over the tables. How could you get the class to clean up? Scenarios Long-Term
Management Systems Group Consequences
The Good Behavior Game
Token Reinforcement - So practicing accurate behavior is important. Long-Term Management Systems in the Classroom