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Transcript of Stuart Hall
Preferred/Dominant reading of a text
This position is one where the consumer takes the actual meaning directly, and decodes it exactly the way it was encoded.
Negotiated reading of a text
This position is a mixture of accepting and rejecting elements. Readers are acknowledging the dominant message, but are not willing to completely accept it the way the encoder has intended. The reader to a certain extent generally accepts the preferred meaning, but is simultaneously resisting or modifying it in a way which reflects their own experiences and interests.
Oppositional reading of a text
A consumer understands the meaning, but due to individual circumstances, has their own way of decoding the message, forming their own interpretations. The readers' situation has placed them in an opposing position in relation to the producers intended meaning, and although they understand the intended meaning they do not agree and ultimately reject it.
Kendall Jenner - Pepsi Advert
Audiences and Power
Do you think audiences are always influenced by the media, or do they have the power to pick and choose what ideologies they accept?
The model is strong and healthy looking which fits with their brand identity and she could be aspirational for the audience.
Example - Protein World
Stuart Hall says that the media is
with messages that media audiences
, or interpret in different ways depending on an individual's cultural background, economic standing, and personal experiences.
His ideas suggest that the audience are empowered rather than passive
What do you think are the
readings of this text?
Stretch and challenge
Who would be more likely to have an oppositional reading of the text?
The model's stance highlights her thinness rather than health, and the question, "Are You Beach Body Ready?" suggests that this is how women should look.
Who would be more likely to have this oppositional reading?
Bandura - the media can implement ideas into the audiences minds
George Gerbner, Cultivation theory - the more that the audience consumes something, the more likely they are to be influenced by it
Liberal pluralist ideas
What do you think are the preferred and oppositional readings?