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Respiratory System

Scholars Bio, Period 6
by

Lauren Tan

on 10 September 2015

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Transcript of Respiratory System

Shway Larkin, Zach Grech, Alex Shunck, Chance Christian, Lauren Tan
Respiratory System
The nose is the only part of the respiratory system that can be seen externally. Air is breathed in through the nostrils and enters the nasal cavity where it is divided by the nasal septum. The nose is lined with thick, sticky mucus to moisten the nasal tract. From here the air travels down the trachea to the lungs.
Bronchi:
Diaphragm
The diaphragm is specific to mammals, and is essential
to their survival. This dome-shaped structure is made of
muscles and tendons and is located just below the lungs, separating the chest and abdominal sections.
Secondary bronchi (lobar bronchi):
branch off from primary bronchi. Each one directly conducts air to and from one of the lungs' five lobes.
Tertiary bronchi (segmental bronchi):
within the lobe. These conduct air to and from the bronchopulmonary segment.
3 sets of bronchi:
Primary bronchi-
near sternal angle, the trachea splits. These enter a lung.
Bronchopulmonary Segment:
Along with tertiary bronchi, it is supplied by a pulmonary artery branch. It is shaped like an irregular cone with the point at the origin of the tertiary bronchus and its base projected onto the lung.
Alveoli
Grape-shaped
Held by bronchioles
Act as primary gas exchange units of the lung.
Covered with capillaries
Tiny spaces called

alveolar epitheliums

allows the exchange of gasses between air and blood.
Primary
Primary
Primary
Primary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Secondary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Tertiary
Trachea
Food, Liquid and Air all go down to back of your throat. That air goes down the trachea, aka the windpipe. That air will then reach your lungs, and food will reach your stomach through the other tube, the esophagus.
There is a coating of mucus on the inside of the trachea that traps all foreign particles so they can be either transported to the stomach or expelled.
Larynx
The larynx is an organ in the neck that controls breathing, production of sound, and protecting the trachea from food entering it. The epiglottis is flap at the back of your throat that divides the air and food up. The epiglottis flap will open up to let the air come through, but not the other food particles.The vocal cords are also held inside the larynx, which control the pitch and volume of sound.
This structure helps mammals breathe more quickly and efficiently, thus explaining why they can endure strenuous activity longer than any other group of animals.
What It Does...
The Path of Air...
Air, which is the input of respiration, enters through either the nose or mouth. It then goes down the trachea into both lungs, through the bronchi and into the alveoli. From there, it goes into the bloodstream by passing through the alveolar epithelium. The bloodstream carries it to your cells to replenish them with oxygen. Carbon dioxide, which is the output of respiration, must follow the same path backwards on its way out of the body.
General Info: Lungs
The Respiratory System Song
The right lung has 3 lobes: superior, median, and inferior.
The lungs are spongy organs that inflate and deflate as you breathe.
The left lung has only 2 lobes: superior and inferior.
The lungs are covered by a tissue layer called the pleura, which also lines the chest cavity.
A thin layer of fluid between the pleura and the lung lets the lung easily expand and contract as one breathes.
The mouth is used to filter and moisten air on its way to the trachea. Breathing through the nose is better than breathing through the mouth because you lessen your chances of getting an airborne illness.
The Respiratory System
in Other Organisms...
Most terrestrial vertebrates have lungs with various branches to maximize respiratory surface to exchange gases.
Birds
have a large area of surface in the lungs where gas is exchanged because they have a high metabolic rate and high body temperatures.
Insects and other invertebrates
do not rely on lungs and have no common respiratory characteristics with other organisms. Instead, they have a tracheal system which is made up of tubes that extend through the body. The smallest branches exchange oxygen with the cells directly. They do not exchange with the bloodstream!
Aquatic Animals
have gills that are moist and thin, which allow gases to pass easily through them. Capillaries cover the gills so that the oxygen can enter the bloodstream.
Reptiles
also rely on lungs for respiration. Reptiles, unlike birds, have less surface area in the lungs for gaseous exchange because of their low metabolic rates. The lungs of reptiles are more efficient than the lungs of
amphibians
because they have greater surface area for gas exchange and the lungs inflate and deflate when the ribs contract.
Amphibians’
lungs only allow gas exchange on the outer surface, making them inefficient. Therefore, amphibians rely on diffusion across their moist skin. The lungs in mammals have many internal branches and are assisted by the diaphragm, making them much more efficient than these other two types of animals.
The basic characteristics of respiratory systems is to receive air, or water, exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen, and to carry that oxygen to the body cells for energy.
Works Cited:
"KidsHealth." Choking. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2013.
"Diseases of the Larynx." Diseases of the Larynx. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2013.
"Body Systems." : Respiratory System. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2013.
"How Your Heart Works." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2013.
“Diaphragm.” National History Museum. n.p., 2013. Web. 1 May 2013.
“The diaphragm: a hidden but essential organ for the mammal and the human.” PubMed. Kitaoka
H, Chihara K, n.d. Web. 1 May 2013.
http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/systems/respiration.html

Diseases of the Lung:
Asthma
Asthma is a chronic (long-term) disease that inflames and narrows the airways of the lungs. The symptoms can worsen at any time making breathing difficult. There is no cure for this disease, and when you are not having any symptoms your lungs can still be inflamed.
Allergies
At least one out of every five Americans suffers from allergies. Some symptoms of allergies sneezing, trouble breathing, itchy eyes, and congestion. Allergies can be caused by foods, change of season (weeds, pollen, and grass) , and animals.
COPD
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a long-term lung disease that refers to both chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Symptoms are coughing, mucus, shortness of breath, and exacerbations (flare ups). If you contract this disease you can contact your doctor for medicine to control the disease.
Bronchitis
Occurs when the airways in your lungs are inflamed, causing mucus to build up in the lungs. There are two types of this disease, Acute and Chronic Bronchitis. Acute Bronchitis is the more common, viral infection. It is worse than the common cold, but not as bad as pneumonia. In Chronic Bronchitis the cough persists for two to three months for several years.
Emphysema
Emphysema is a long-term, progressive disease that primarily causes shortness of breath. This disease is caused by smoking. Due to lung damage, people have trouble blowing air out causing the infected to cough and wheeze persistently.
Pharynx
The pharynx is the passage where the air and food cross. When food is swallowed, the upper part of the respiratory tract moves upward and tips the epiglottis over the opening of the windpipe. The rest of the time, the air passage in the pharynx is open for breathing.
While many animals have similar characteristics,
pigs
have almost identical respiratory systems to humans.
Questions?
The Damages of Smoking...
Smoking causes extreme damage to the lungs. A single drag of a cigarette esposes a person to over 4,000 chemicals. The main job of cilia is to clear out the mucus that builds up in the lungs. Cilia lines the inside of the lungs, but smoking kills the cilia cells. Smoking therefore disables the normal cleansing and protective mechanism of the lungs, causing coughing and trouble breathing. Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema. Some toxins in tobacco are known to cause lung cancer. Smoking accounts for 90% of lung cancer cases. Smokers die 13-15 years sooner than nonsmokers. It takes about 15 years to completely remove all toxins from your lungs.
The respiratory center is located in the lower part of your brain, and controls your breathing. The carbon dioxide and pH levels in your blood affect the rate of breathing. That is why breathing is involuntary.
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