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Introduction into Matter

Physical Science BJU Chapter 2
by

Kimberly Cribb

on 14 July 2015

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Transcript of Introduction into Matter

Matter is ...
Matter – Has mass and takes up space.
Includes all substances in the universe (examples: air, water, wood, planets. LIGHT and HEAT are NOT matter even though it exists in the universe.)
Can be sensed and measured
Made of particles
Comes in 3 main phases – solid, liquid, gas
Plasma is a 4th phase that is less familiar.
Fluorescent lamps have a plasma inside them.

Matter is...
Made of Atoms
In constant motion
Mixes together evenly through Diffusion!
Classification of Matter
States of Matter
The physical state of matter depends on the strength of the attraction between its particles (atoms/molecules) and how fast its particles are moving.
Changes in Matter
Physical Properties
Can be observed or measured without altering the kind of matter
Examples: color, density, hardness, crystalline form, electrical conductivity, texture, state
Help determine the best uses for the material

Chemical Properties
How a substance changes in the presence of another substance
Examples: flammability, how corrosive is it
Determine how easy it is to change it from one form to anothe
Changes of State
Changes of State and Temperature
The temperature of a substance tells you the amount of thermal energy it has.
The more thermal energy the HOTTER it is!
The hotter an object is the more energy the particles have to move around.
When it loses thermal energy it cools down. When it gains thermal energy it heats up
The physical "Stuff" matter is
made of is the mass.
Mass
The amount of space the physical stuff occupies.
Volume
Atoms!
Protons (P) are POSITIVE
Found in the nucleus.
Neutrons (N) are NEUTRAL
Electrons are NEGATIVE
Found orbiting the nucleus
Tiny mass. Smaller than the protons and neutrons.
Found in the nucleus.
Neutral means NO CHARGE!
(P) & (N) have about the SAME MASS
When two or more atoms bond together they form
MOLECULES
.
When atoms have the same number of protons (P) and electrons (E) they are neutral.

BUT if they have differing numbers of protons and electrons they form IONS!
Cations (ca+ions)
have more protons (P) than electrons (E).

They have a (+) charge.
Anions have more electrons than protons.

They have a (-) charge.
A N
(egative)
ION
Homo -
means "the same"
Solids
Closely packed
Resist shape change
Definite volume
Usually the most dense
Low compressibility
Vibrate in a fixed position
Gases
Very far apart
No definite shape. The shape changes with the container.
No definite volume. They fill the container completely.
Move at high speeds
Gas Pressure -- The average total push of a gas/area over which it is exerted.
Liquids
Mobile particles but still close together
The shape changes with the shape of the container
Definite volume
Low compressibility
Have viscosity -- A measure of the resistance to flow (Think thickness)
More viscous liquids flow slowly.
Liquids and gases are BOTH FLUIDS because they both can FLOW!
Physical Change
Does NOT alter the composition of the matter
Change change state (solid to liquid to gas and the reverse)
Can be reversed at times (dissolve sugar in water then evaporate the water and get the sugar back)
Examples: Melting wax, hammering gold flat, grinding wheat, chopping wood, freezing water
Chemical Change
DOES alter the composition of the matter.
When atoms of different elements are rearranged and combine in different ways to make NEW substances with different physical properties
CANNOT be easily reversed!
Examples: Rusting, burning wood, digesting food, all chemical reactions.
The Law of the Conservation of Matter – Matter can be neither created nor destroyed,
but only changed from one form to another.
'Therm" means heat.
So Thermal energy is
HEAT
energy.
By D'Anne Cribb
Homogeneous
Mixtures
Heterogeneous
mixtures
Pure Substances
Sugar
Salt
http://quizlet.com/_81ywu
Physical science Quizlet
Chemistry Quizlet
http://quizlet.com/_r6f54
Full transcript