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Buddhism

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by

Abdi Ibrahim

on 7 November 2014

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Transcript of Buddhism

Buddhism
1. Geographical Origins
2. Introduction
3. Life of the Founder
4. Sacred Texts
5. Basic Teachings
6. Concept of God
7. Karma
8. Sects
9. Ritual Observances

Geographical Origins
Introduction
Originally an Indian religion but has more followers outside India
Named after its founder Guatama Buddha
It is a way of life to improve the quality of everyday life
Addresses the nature of suffering and a way to overcome it.
It started in the 6th century BCE
Has organized priesthood and monastic order
Has nuns and convents
Life of the Founder
The founder, Guatama Buddha was born in India into a royal family of Sakhyas (Bihar)
His given name was Sidhartha (one who will achieve his goal)
Buddha (an enlightened one) was a title given to him
Was married and had a son
Underwent extreme body asceticism: nakedness, starvation, extremes of heat and cold, great discomfort and received enlightenment
Got enlightened after 6 years of meditation at which time he seeks the middle path- the path of balance in all things ( between extreme pain and extreme pleasure)
Gave first sermon in Deer Park
Died at age of 80 after leading a missionary life for 40 years
Sacred Texts
Buddha's teachings were transmitted orally for about 3 centuries
Main scriptures are collectively know as
Tripitaka
(three baskets)

1. Vinaya Pitaka
A book of disciplinary rules for monks, nuns and householders
2. Sutra Pitaka
Collection of religious duties, philosophy and doctrine
3. Abhidharma Pitaka
Contains advanced metaphysical teachings
Dhammapada
A part of Sutra Pitaka known as Buddhist bible. It contains basic teachings of Budhism
Basic Teachings
The Four Noble Truths
1.
is suffering ( Dukkha): Physical, mental, spritual
2.
There is cause of suffering:- Tanha, desire or craving for things which are permanent but everything is by nature impermanent.
3.
Suffering can be stopped: by eliminating its cause
4.
There is a way to overcome suffering:- by following the Noble Eightfold Path
The Noble Eightfold Path
Its purpose is to overcome suffering and attain Nirvana (Liberation)
Buddha taught his original Sangha (community who perform Dharma) to practice the Noble Eightfold faith.
It is also called the Middle Way, a way between two extremes ( extreme pain and extreme and extreme pleasure)
It consists of eight principles which are practiced simultaneously:

1.
Right Understanding
2.
Right thought (intention)

3.
Right Speech
4.
Right Action

5.
Right Occupation
6.
Right Effort

7.
Right Mindfulness
8.
Right Concentration
Liberation
There are two types of Liberation:
1. Nirvana (Nibbana in Pali)
Means to blow out (blowing out all passion and desires)
It is the complete cessation of craving. A state of complete bliss, freedom from the cycle of Samsara
Attainable in this life by anyone through their own efforts
2. Parinirvana
Completely dying out.
Human Existence
Buddhists do not believe in the existence of permanent self. The illusion of permanence is a projection to be understood in two other basic doctrines
1. Impermanence
(
Anica)- Complete absence of an underlying unity of all things.
- Everything is impermanent and permanence is an illusion.
2. Dependent

Origination
- All things are born of other things; have previous manifestation. Everything in this world are therefore a variation of a pre-existing energy. But all these energies and motion are impermanent
Self:
Is the combination of five aggregates (Skanda)
Body (Physical body)
Feelings (Sensations, pleasant, unpleasant)
Perception (sense perception)
Disposition (broader mental activities)
Consciousness (thought, reason, subtle mental activities)
The Concept of God
Do not believe in God.
Buddha was a great master but not divine
Buddha's mission was to overcome suffering which did not depend on the grace of God. He did not use God in his popular terminology.
The law of Karma is the highest doctrine
Karma
Believe strongly in the law of karma and reincarnation
Everything has its origin in previous manifestation and will continue to re-manifest until liberation is achieved
the force of the past karma causes a new birth
No migration of the soul, it is the character that continues

Sects
There are three major Buddhism sects each of which has minor sects:
1. Mahayana Buddhism
Regards Buddha as an incarnation of an eternal Buddha
An individual can achieve Nirvana without becoming a monk or a homeless
Believe in Bodhisattva (One who postpones attainment of nirvana in order to alleviate the suffering of others in Mahayana Buddhism)
Emphasis on faith
Interested in universal salvation
Followers are found in China, India, Japan, Korea, Tibet, Vietnam.

2. Hinayana Buddhism
Known as Orthodox Buddhist school
Central figure is monk or nun
Emphasis on monastic discipline and meditation
Regards Buddha as a great Master, human being, not divine
Goal is to become Arhat (perfected Saint)
More interested in individual salvation
Practiced in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Burma, Cambodia.
3. Tantarism (Mantrayana) Buddhism
-Largely influenced by Hindu Tantric tradition
-Emphasis on Yoga discipline
-Three practices are important:
Mudra
(symbolic gestures)
Mantra
(hymns)
Mandala (
visual aids)

Ritual Observances
Relics or images of Buddha's body are preserved in Stupas or pag-das (tower-like temples)
Worshiping or building a Stupa brings merit
Offerings of flowers, incense, food, drink, lamps are common but not encouraged in orthodox Hinayana
Butsudan (Buddha shelf or alter) either for Buddha's body or relic
Rosaries are widely used
Pilgrimage
Make Pilgrimage to four sacred places
Birth place of Buddha
Site of his enlightenment
Deer Park where he preached his first sermon
Death place of Buddha
Three Refuges (Trishan)
Buddha (the enlightened and timeless Buddha
Dharma (Buddhist teaching and religion as a holy force)
Sangha (Buddhist community or brotherhood)
These refuges are repeated three times before starting any religious service as follows:
I take refuge in Buddha
I take refuge in Dharma
I take refuge in Sangha
Mostly written in "Pali" language and some in Sanskrit
Guatama Buddha
Buddhist Rosary
Stupas in Thailand
Stupas in Tibet
Statue of the Buddha at Kamakura
The Buddha attains enlightenment
Buddhist wheel of life
A Bodhisattva
Buddhist Monk at Prayer
Full transcript