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Kelly Walenga

on 15 March 2016

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Adolescent Egocentrism
A heightened self-consciousness of adolescents. Thinking becomes very introspective and teens often go through periods of extreme self-absorption. Can lead to cognitive limitations
Relatively stable combo of beliefs, attitudes, values, motives, temperament, and behavior patterns arising from underlying, internal inclinations that an individual exhibits in many situations and serve to distinguish us from another.
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Freud believed the mind was divided into 3 parts:

part that we can access if prompted, but is not in our active conscious (i.e. telephone number, the name of your best childhood friend)

whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time.

inaccessible warehouse of anxiety-producing thoughts and drives, which motivate many behaviors

dealing with and transforming incompatible wishes, impulses, and urges within one’s own mind!
At any given time, we are only aware of a very small part of what makes up our personality; however, our unacknowledged impulses have a strong influence on us (i.e. the work we choose, the beliefs we hold, our daily habits, our troubling symptoms, etc)

The structure of personality consists of the

The first and most primitive part of the personality present at birth. Completely unconscious. Pleasure-seeking and impulsive

Completely unconscious
Demanding, irrational, illogical, and impulsive
Contains all of the basic biological drives: hunger, thirst, self-preservation, sex
Works on the
pleasure principle
, or the desire for immediate gratification of needs with no regard for consequences. Wants needs satisfied immediately and does not care about the desires or needs of anyone esle

Develops out of a need to deal with reality. Is mostly conscious, rational, and logical.

The moral center of personality, containing the consci
ence, the part of personality
that makes people feel guilt, or moral anxiety, when they do
the wrong thing.

Sets unrealistic, high expectations based on the social standards of one's culture
If the id gets too strong, impulses and self gratification take over the person’s life. If the superego gets too strong, the person is driven by rigid morals and is unbending in his/her interactions with the world.

Works on the
reality principle
, or the need to satisfy the demands of the id only in ways that will not lead to negative consequences
and offend the moralistic character of the superego.
Conflict between id and superego = ANXIETY! Ego protects itself via
defense mechanisms

(ways of dealing with stress through unconsciously distorting one's perception of reality)
At each stage, a different erogenous zone, or area of the body that produces pleasurable feelings, becomes important and can become the source of conflict. Conflicts that are not fully resolved can result in
, or getting "stuck" to some degree in a stage of development
According to Freud, personality develops in a series of stages, which were determined by the developing sexuality of the child.
Oedipus Complex
To deal with anxiety, the boy will repress his sexual feelings for his mother and identify with the father. The result of
with same-sex parent is the development of gender roles and the superego, the internalized moral values of the same -ex parent.
Freud believed that boys develop both sexual attraction to their mothers and jealousy of their fathers during this stage. Jealousy of the father leads to feelings of anxiety and fears that the father, a powerful authority figure, might get angry and do something terrible, such as castrate him (
castration anxiety
Girls suffer
Electra Complex
and a penis envy, where the daughter is initially attached to her mother, but then a shift of attachment occurs when she realizes she lacks a penis. She desires her father whom she sees as a means to obtain a penis substitute (a child). She then represses her desire for her father and incorporates the values of her mother and accepts her inherent 'inferiority' in society.

Accepted Freud’s basic ideas: personality structures of id, ego, and superego; the importance of unconscious; the shaping of personality in childhood; and the dynamics of anxiety and the defense mechanisms. However, they placed more emphasis on the conscious mind and doubted that sex and aggression were all-consuming motivations.

Neo-Freudians: Modern Psychodynamic Perspective
Erik Erikson, a Neo-Freudian, developed a theory based on social rather than sexual relationships, covering the entire life span. One's personality shaped by how individuals deal with these psychosocial crises.

People who assume that their own actions and decisions directly affect the consequences they experience (successes/failures) are said to have an
internal locus of control
, whereas people who assume that their lives are more controlled by powerful others, luck or fate have
external locus of control
Psychologist James Marcia built on Erikson's work by proposing that identity formation has two dimensions:
. A person's scores on these two dimensions will place that person into one of the four identity status categories.

Complete the Psychsim "Who Am I" to identify the mode of orientation you currently fall under! http://bcs.worthpublishers.com/gray/content/psychsim5/Who%20Am%20I/WhoAmI.htm

The psychosocial crisis during adolescence is the formation of one's identity, which includes developing one's political beliefs, religious beliefs, occupational interests, sex/gender roles, sexual orientation,etc
Orientations may occur at a particular time. Individual may get locked into one of these patterns or go through several at various times.
Belief that one is invincible and can never be hurt. Regardless of what happens to others, believe no harm will come to them
Invincibility Fable

Belief that everyone is watching and the tendency to overestimate the degree to which one’s behavior will lead to social acceptance or social rejection
Imaginary Audience

Wrapped up with appearance – everyone will notice pimple, new hair do, etc
Drink alcohol at party because teen believes friends will think less of him/her for not drinking

“No one has been in love like this before!”

“You don’t understand… you have never had this much work to accomplish in one night!”
Personal Fable
Perceptions of one’s own uniqueness (experiences, perspectives, feelings, values) and that one is destined for greatness

Write in journals about their future as the next great novelist or rock star
Baumrinds's Parenting Style
Social Cognitive Perspective
Theories of Personality Development
Three factors influence one another in determining the patterns of behavior that make up personality: the environment, the behavior itself, and personal or cognitive factors that the person brings into the situation from earlier experiences.

These three factors each affect the other two in a reciprocal, or give-and-take, relationship called
reciprocal determinism

(Physical surroundings, family and friends, other social influences)

(Motor responses, verbal responses, social interactions)

(Cognitive abilities, biological/physical characteristics, belief's and attitudes)
And the cycle repeats itself...
Your thoughts and personalities helped you choose an environment, which in turn further shaped your thoughts, behaviors, and personality!
Examples of Important Personal Factors
(which shape personality)
Locus of Control
= the tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not have control over events and consequences in their lives.
Positive correlation between internal locus and mental health and psychological functioning.
Another personal factor is
or a person's expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance. People high in self-efficacy are more persistent and expect to succeed, whereas people low in self-efficacy expect to fail and tend to avoid challenges
By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with Freud’s negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists. Humanism developed as a reaction against the negativity of psychoanalysis and the deterministic nature of behaviorism

= emphasized our capacity for personal growth, development of our potential, and freedom to choose our destiny.

The "third force" in psychology that focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice
is guided by each person’s unique, inborn
self-actualization tendency
. Guides us toward positive or healthful behaviors rather than negative or harmful ones. Motivates us to become everything that our genetic potential will allow us to become!
The self-concept is based on what people are told by others and how the sense of self is reflected in words and actions of important people in one's life, such as parents, siblings, coworkers, friends, and teachers. The way these important people react (specifically, how they provide
positive regard
- warmth, affection, love and respect) to the person determines the degree of agreement between real and ideal selves

Conditional positive regard
- love, affection and respect that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish. Have to behave in certain acceptable ways, such as living up to or meeting the standards of others.
Unconditional Positive Regard
- love, affection, and respect with no strings attached. Vital to people's ability to cope with stress and to strive to achieve self-actualization. Valued as a human being. It is necessary for people to be able to explore fully all that they can achieve and become.

Lack of control over outcomes can lead to
learned helplessness
- passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
Use feedback from your body to assess your strength, vulnerability, and capability.

Use previous experiences of success or failure on similar tasks to estimate how you will do on a new, related task.
Listen to what others say about your capabilities
Compare your capabilities with those of others.
Influences motivation to achieve, perform, and do well in a variety of tasks and situations.
Also, experience
Electra Complex
Trait theories
focus on describing personality and predicting behavior based on that description; not why people have the traits they do.
Types of Traits

Raymond Cattell reduced the number of traits to between 16 and 23 with a computer method called factor analysis.

These 16 source traits are seen as trait dimensions, or continuum, in which there are two opposite traits at each end with a range of possible degrees for each trait measurable along the dimension.

He believed that these traits were literally wired into the nervous system to guide one's behavior across many different situations and that each person's "constellation" of traits was unique
Gordon Allport first developed a list of about 200 traits.
Personality characteristics easily seen by other people

How many traits are needed to provide a good description of someone's personality?!?
More basic traits that underlie the surface traits
In the book “Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World that Can’t Stop Talking”, Susan Cain suggests that as a society we increasingly treat shyness as a disorder rather than seeing the value of that temperament.

1. Do you think your school, work, and/or social life rewards extroversion and unwittingly penalizes the shy in some way? How so?
2. How is our culture losing out by celebrating extraverts and undervaluing introverts?

Traits provide a shorthand method for describing someone’s personality; summarize traits that make people unique

By placing people on several trait dimensions simultaneously, psychologists can describe countless individual personality variations

While behaviors from a situation may be different, the average behavior remains the same – average behavior across situations.

Paints too simplistic a picture of human personality and may not reflect its depth and complexity

Does not explain how these traits develop across one’s lifetime

Person-Situation Controversy
(Walter Mischel) – traits are not good predictors of behavior. While traits may be enduring, the resulting behavior in various situations is different (traits interact with the situation’s cues.) EX: Even if you were an extravert, you would behave differently at a wedding than at a funeral.
Consistent, enduring ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving
Myers-Briggs Keirsey Temperament Sorter --> 8 surface traits
The Big Five
Several researchers have arrived at five trait dimensions that have research support across cultures, called the Big Five or five-factor model
a person's willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences.
Refers to emotional instability or stability. People who are excessive worriers, overanxious, and moody would score high on this dimension, whereas those who are more even-tempered and calm would score low.
Refers to the basic emotional style of a person, who may be easygoing, friendly, and pleasant (at the high end of the scale) or grumpy , crabby, and hard to get along with (at the low end)
Refers to where people draw energy from, with extraverts drawing energy from being sociable and being around people, and introverts garnering energy through being alone or doing solitary activities.
Refers to a person's organization and motivation, with people who score high on this dimension being those who are careful about being places on time and careful with belongings as well.
Trait Perspective
Sigmund Freud
Humanistic Perspective
Carl Rogers
For Rogers, a person who is in the process of self-actualization, actively exploring potentials and abilities, and experiencing a match between the real self and ideal self, is a fully functioning person.
Fully functioning people
are in touch with their feelings and abilities and are able to trust their innermost urges and intuitions. To become fully functioning, a person needs a growth promoting environment of genuineness, acceptance, and empathy.
Rogers proposed that self-actualization depends on proper development of the self-concept - how we see or describe ourselves.
The self concept includes the real self and the ideal self.
Real self
- one's actual perception of characteristics, traits, and abilities that form the basis of the striving for self actualization
Ideal self
- the perception of what one should be or would like to be.
When the real self and the ideal self are very close or similar to each other, people feel competent and capable
When there is a mismatch between the real self and ideal self, anxiety and neurotic behavior can be the result
- match between real and ideal self
- receive unconditional positive regard from significant others
- One's ability to recognize, perceive and directly experience the emotion of another
Need a
growth-promoting environment
to reach self-actualization, which includes the following components:
Dead Poet's Society

Humanistic Perspective
- Did Neal’s parents provide a growth promoting environment? Address each component: acceptance, empathy, and genuineness.

Social-Cognitive Perspective
- How can you apply the idea of reciprocal determinism to Neil
- Did Neal’s environment promote an internal or external locus of control? How will his locus of control influence his future behavior?

Sally is outgoing, loves attention, and has a great voice (PERSONAL FACTORS), which influences her to sign up for a drama class and form friendships with really sociable students (BEHAVIOR).
Sally signs up for a drama class (BEHAVIOR) and meets a drama teacher (ENVIRONMENT) that encourages her and believes in her talent, which motivates her to try out on American Idol (BEHAVIOR).
Being in a drama class with other sociable students (ENVIRONMENT) makes Sally even more outgoing (PERSONAL FACTORS). The instruction she receives in drama class (ENVIRONMENT) also helps improve her voice and gives her great confidence, especially when in the lime-light (PERSONAL FACTORS).
(Extraversion vs Introversion; Sensing vs Intuition; Thinking vs. Feeling; Judging vs. Perceiving)
Take this Big Five Inventory to see where you fall on the 5 traits (http://www.personalityassessor.com/bigfive/)
Click on the following link to find out where you should live based on your Myers-Briggs results http://thoughtcatalog.com/heidi-priebe/2015/02/heres-where-you-should-live-based-on-your-myers-briggs-personality-type/
This clip from Schindler’s List provides an excellent example of the effects of a lack of personal control. While at the commandant’s house party, Schindler walks down the steps to the basement and introduces himself to Helen, a Jewish maid and prisoner. In reflecting on her experience, Helen explains her despair to Schindler and seemed to have lost all sense of personal control.
Take locus of control survey in packet. Scores will range from 10 to 70. The higher your score, the greater internal locus of control you have. The lower your score, the greater external locus of control you have!
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