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Ch 9 - Motivation and Affect
Transcript of Ch 9 - Motivation and Affect
and Cognition MOTIVATION Theoretical Perspectives
on Motivation Basic Needs Affects and its Effects What was motivating about this video?
Were you motivated by it? Cognitions That Motivate Protecting one's self worth is one of the highest priorities - we have a need to feel competent
We protect our self-worth in a number of ways:
Avoiding difficult tasks
Self handicapping The Need for Maintaining One's Self Worth We have an intrinsic need to feel connected to others
Interacting with friends vs school work
Concern for others
This need for relatedness can manifest in a few ways. Two of which are the need for affiliation and the need for approval Need for Relatedness Need for Affiliation and Approval Provide competence-promoting feedback.
Promote mastery of challenging tasks.
Promote self-comparison rather than comparison with others.
Be sure errors occur within an overall context of success. Enhancing Self-Efficacy/ Increasing Motivation Enhancing Self-Determination/ Increasing Motivation Motivation affects cognitive processing/ cognitive processing affects motivation.
High self-efficacy and self-determination increases intrinsic motivation. The Interplay of Cognition and Motivation Present rules and instructions in an informational manner.
Provide opportunities for students to make choices.
Give students considerable autonomy within their extracurricular activities.
Evaluate students' performance in a non-controlling fashion.
Minimize reliance on extrinsic reinforcers, but use them when necessary.
Help students keep externally imposed restraints in proper perspective. Ways to promote self-efficacy: Make sure students master basic skills.
Help them make noticeable progress on difficult tasks.
Communicate confidence in students' abilities through both words and actions.
Expose students to successful peers. The perspective that a person's motivation is primarily based on his/her enduring personality characteristic traits.
Emphasis on the idea of achievement motivation.
Losing prominence in contemporary psychology as cognitive theory provides a better model for achievement motivation. The Trait Perspective Believes that motivation lies in reinforcing outcomes or avoiding punishment.
Early behaviorists proposed the concept of drive as a way of explaining motivation.
Drive theory has been largely replaced by newer theories as it doesn't adequately explain large parts of motivation (e.g. long term thinking or learning despite no apparent satisfying of drive) The Behaviorist Perspective Emphasizing on people's goals that are reflected in their choices and behaviors.
States that motivation is largely dependent on people's expectations for a particular behavior.
Self-efficacy is key. The Social Cognitive Perspective Focuses on how mental processes affect motivation.
Motivation is primarily based on how one tries to understand the world, how to connect the dots and make logical bridges.
This curiosity provides for a big source of intrinsic motivation.
Other sources: sense of competence, sense of self-determination. The Cognitive Perspective Self-Handicapping Setting unachievable goals
A lack of effort
Alcohol or drugs
Self-Handicapping seeks to increase a students chances of being able to justify their failure. If success seems unlikely to begin with–with the help of self-handicapping–then the failure seems justified and does not damage their self-worth as much. Students possess individual differences towards their tendency to seek out friendly relationships–affiliation.
A high need for affiliation is likely to interfere with a students maximal classroom learning and achievement. Approval–acceptance–is another need which varies depending on the individual.
A high need for approval leads to succumbing to peer pressure and a strong desire to please others. --> Motivation is something that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior The Nature of Motivation -->For the most part, all students are motivated about something -->Motivation can come within and also be influenced by their environment. --> Situated Motivation Effort and Energy Goal Directed Behavior Initiation of Activities Persistence with Activities Cognitive Processing Reinforcing Consequences Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Is the change of emotion students feel as they read and come to know new information Hot Cognition Students are most likely to pay attention to things that evoke emotion. Ex: When we read about the living condition in certain parts of the world, sadness comes into play. Students can usually retrieve information with highly emotional content more easily than those that aren't. Students may instead become frustrated and anxious. If at first they don't succeed, they give up. You are asked to present a speech in front of a large audience, on a topic that isn't familiar to you and on top of it you don't have enough time to get to know the topic better. What happens to you the day of the speech? Chaos, you become a total nervous wreck: your heart is pounding wildly, your palms are sweaty, and your stomach is in knots. Put yourselves in this situation... You are a victim of?... is the feeling of uneasiness and the apprehension about an event because you're not sure what its outcome will be. ANXIETY Two types of anxiety: State vs. Trait Strait Anxiety is a temporary feeling of excitement Trait Anxiety is a pattern of responding with anxiety even in non threatening situations Ex: Many students may feel anxious before a difficult exam. Ex: When students not only get anxious before hard tests, but also before easy ones too Two ways: How can Anxiety Affect Classroom Performance? Facilitating Anxiety: a small amount of anxiety often improves performance. Debilitating Anxiety: too much anxiety often interferes with effective performance. Physical Appearance
A new situation
Judgement or Evaluation by others
Excessive classroom demands
Any situation in which self-esteem is threatened Source of Anxiety Set realistic goals
Match the level of instruction to students' cognitive levels and capabilities
Provide supplementary sources of support for learning material
Teach strategies that enhance learning and performance
Asses students' performance independently
Provide feedback about specific behaviors
Allow students to correct errors Steps we (as teachers) can take to help our students with anxiety DON'T STRESS OUT YOUR STUDENTS!!