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Sportscasting and Sports Reporting: The Power of Gender Bias
Transcript of Sportscasting and Sports Reporting: The Power of Gender Bias
By: Darina Mamadaliyeva & Darrell Hargrove
Anna Kournikova Sports Illustrated Cover (n.d). Retrieved on October 28, 2014 from http://archives.jrn.columbia.edu/nyrm/2006/Images/kournikova.jpg
CNN Symbol (n.d). Retrieved on October 29, 2014 from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8b/Cnn.svg/1280px-Cnn.svg.png
ESPN Symbol (n.d). Retrieved on October 29, 2014 from http://www.jimmyv.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/ESPN-Red-Logo-large.jpg
Female Athlete (n.d). Retrieved on October 28, 2014 from http://drjohngonet.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/femalecarbs.jpg
Male and Female symbols (n.d). Retrieved on October 26, 2014 from http://www.psdgraphics.com/file/male-and-female-relationship-sign.jpg
NBA Logo (n.d). Retrieved on October 30, 2014 from http://spanish.fansshare.com/gallery/photos/11485867/nba-blakegriffin/
New York Times Logo (n.d). Retrieved on October 29, 2014 from http://www.metrotimes.com/imager/the-new-york-times-wants-your-detroit-stor/b/original/2250143/1a6f/New-York-Times-Logo.jpg
Olympic Rings (n.d). Retrieved October 29, 2014 from https://pbs.twimg.com/profile_images/1376093193/profile-pic.png
Roger Federer Sports Illustrated Cover (n.d). Retrieved on October 28, 2014 from http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/files/2010/12/113.jpg
Sally Pearson Olympics (n.d). Retreived October 29, 2014 from http://london2012.olympics.com.au/images/aocAthlete/shotstandard/Pearson.jpg
USA Today Logo (n.d). Retrieved on October 28, 2014 from http://www.bluecheddar.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/old-usa-today-logo.bmp
WNBA Logo (n.d). Retriieved on October 30, 2014 from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/archive/3/38/20140205015947!WNBA_Logo_2013.png
Eugenie Bouchard Post game Interview (2014): Retrieved on October 29, 2014 from youtube.com/watch?v=xhCDxgWPJAQ
Rhonda Rousey Highlight film (2013): Retrieved on October 30, 2014 from youtube.com/watch?v=ZjafpeBD6g8
Women in Sport, Sponsorships (2014): Rtreived on OCtober 29, 2014 from http://www.news.com.au/sport/sports-life/women-in-sport-awards-slammed-over-topless-model-inclusion/story-fno61i58-1227091016068
: Men athletes and men's sports will occupy more than 3/4 of time and space in both electronic and print media
: The newspapers will give a significantly larger proportion of their space to women athletes and women's events than the electronic newscasts allot of their time
: Both electronic sportscasts and the newspaper sports pages will reflect significantly increased visibility for women athletes and women's sports during the periods when major women's sporting events are occuring
Because women's sports have a novelty aspect and because USA Today appeals to both a female and male readership, that newspaper will have a significantly greater proportion of stories about women athletes and women's sports than the more conservative New York Times.
In sports discourse, women athletes and women's sports will be significantly more stereotyped in negative ways than the men athletes and men's sports.
Because of their different target audiences, announcers for ESPN's Sportcenter will use significantly more stereotypical descriptors that marginalize women athletes and women's sports while inflating the importance of men's sports than the announcers on CNN's Sports Tonight
5 month Period (11 weeks of material between May and September 1998)
Major sporting events happening during this time.
ESPN taped 3x daily
CNN taped 1x daily weekdays, 2x on weekends
timing # of min. devoted to women's and men's sports.
isolating adjectives used to describe genders in individual or team context.
New York Times (7x/week) and USA Today (5x/week)
# and % of photos including men, women or other
# and % of sport related articles about men, women or other
# of inches and % of space devoted to men, women or other
Cross Media analysis:
Done over the course of the week, compares if either media source was reporting more on specific stories and had greater gender bias.
Lack of comparison to other sportscasting stations. What are other sports networks doing? Do they report more than ESPN on female sports? (Fox Sports, NBC sports, TNT, Sportsnet, etc.)
Time frame chosen for study. Complimentary sports like the NBA and WNBA have opposite seasons in the year, and May is a heavy playoff month for the NBA and NHL which will have a ton of media coverage.
Percent of page used, does not account for well written smaller fonted material compared to a large heading and photo for attention.
94.5% devoted to men's sports
4.4% devoted to women's sports
CNN Sports Tonight
92.9% devoted to men's sports
6.4 % devoted to women's sports
77.4% devoted to men's sports
17.5% devoted to women's sports
New York Times
86.6% devoted to men's sports
9.5% devoted to women's sports
Sportscasting and Sports Reporting: The Power of Gender Bias
Eastman & Billings
Are women athletes and women's sport receiving enough coverage in the sports media world? What is currently available?
Do you watch women's sports or if there was more women's sports available on TV, would you watch it?
Coders transcribers are subjective to their own personal bias
Repeatedly watching re-runs of recordings.
Six hypothesis, not seven.
No true comparative analysis to the Olympics
A communication of thought by words; talk; conversation. A formal discussion of a subject in speech or writing
Phrases whose head word is an adjective
To believe unfairly that all people or things with a particular characteristics are the same
Unequal treatment towards men or woman
Title IX of the Educational Amendment of 1972 & Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedom 1980
1900 Paris Olympics
Some weeks had more women's sport exposure due to special events like the US Open and Wimbledon. However other events like the WNBA Season opener had no significant rise in coverage.
Descriptors and adjective use, showed deeper rooted issues in the sports exposure between men and women.
"The Spelling Bee"
Women's sport delegated to the end of the sportscast in most cases.
Everyday sports coverage was much different compared to the olympics with regards to percentage of time or space devoted to men and women.
Language and tone, should be looked into further
Gender is verbally, visually, and graphically marked for all female sport (eg: WNBA) Why isn't this done for male sports as well?
Do the images presented to us of the female athlete that emphasize sexuality over athletic prowess help to promote women's sport? Or does this help to marginalize women's sport? Or both?
If there was more readily available women's sport on major sports networks, would that offer more footage and material to use in reporting, and thus more coverage?
If the majority of female athlete images were treated the same way as males, would the sports be received/perceived differently by audiences?
Speaking about sponsorships
Austraillian 100m Hurdle Olympic Gold Medalist
Austrailian Netball Captain
What is reinforcing the trend?
What is challenging the trend?
New athlete imagery
Would mixed gender leagues be of any benefit in diminishing the gender bias of sport?
If the timeline for some of the seasons of women's sport was changed, could that lead to better coverage?
Do you that something like men practicing with women has merit? Or does this continue to enforce that men are superior to women in sport?
Men Practicing with Women?