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Human in the Loop
Transcript of Human in the Loop
23 people ~ 50%
50 people ~ 97%
non-machine-reproducible tasks 1930s: hand-computing log-tables we are reaching a plateau with what can
be achieved with highly regular arrays
of electrons ... humans intervene! Emerging Order/Disorder how to optimize a global logistics network?
people start thinking geographically, which
relies on deep knowledge of local and global issues No (Easy) Algorithm for defining potential
collaborators, let people decide based on a reduced set of
possibilities http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160932700013387 http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/gr/m/marble_statue_of_hadrian.aspx http://www.optispotter.com/ Go http://gogameguru.com/zen-computer-go-program-beats-takemiya-masaki-4-stones/ Samsung Cup ~ $735,000 Toyota Cup ~ $300,000 Ing Cup ~ $400,000 Mathematical Tables Project (WPA)
Local uncertainty, outcome determined by global configuration
(IR/UV coupling) Complex Dynamics:
Dynamically-attained stable configuration Complex Dynamics:
White cannot play at A Basic Rule #4:
Must play elsewhere before capturing Basic Rule #3:
No periodic behavior (“ko”)
Each surrounded interstice = 1 point Basic Rule #2:
Territory “Atari!” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Go_(game)
Each captured stone = 1 point Basic Rule #1:
Surround Other Player’s Stones
Here, computers tend to be much weaker than humans Complex Dynamics:
Middle-game education media advertising Times of Yore:
Tedious and Hand-made Machine-Driven http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/02/13/us/politics/2013-budget-proposal-graphic.html?_r=0 (mod 11) Secure Multi-party Computation Secure Auctions
Secure Dating (secure multiplication)
“Millionaire Problem” Existing Applications (Andrew Chi-Chih Yao: Protocols for Secure Computations (Extended Abstract) FOCS 1982: 160-164) http://www.alexandra.dk/uk/Projects/Pages/SIMAP.aspx $5 billion phone calls Art 3D We are reaching a plateau with what can be achieved with highly-regular arrays of human-computers ...
What intervenes, and what tool emerges? What is the next phase?
Regular arrays of human-computers? leverage regular arrays of electrons How to make $1 become $2 ?
Big, one-off decisions
should we merge?
should we cancel the deal?
should we advertise this feature? visual (1% population China = 15 million)* $100 = 1.5
(10% population Korea = 5 million)* $500 = 2.5
(1% population Japan = 1 million)* $1000 = 1.0
(0.1% population US = 0.3 million)* $2000 = 0.6 2000 BC (San Xing Dui) IBM ILOG ODME aka Mocha
aka ECMAScript ... no separate compiler
directly edit in Notepad
don't need special training to hack fast and simple
big visual bang
extensive open source libraries runs in web browser
IE, Chrome, Firefox, Safari ... while (OptimizationNeeded(params, data))
} (esp. Probability) Warren G. Harding
James K. Polk November 2nd http://www.compileonline.com/execute_python_online.php nUsers = 44 # number of US presidents
nWords = 365
probNoneSame = 1.0
for i in range (1,nUsers):
probNoneSame = 1.0*probNoneSame*(nWords-1.0*i)/nWords
probTwoSame = (nUsers)*(nUsers - 1)/2.0/nWords
for i in range (1,nUsers-1):
probTwoSame = 1.0*probTwoSame*(nWords-1.0*i)/nWords
print 1.0 - 1.0*probNoneSame - 1.0*probTwoSame Client–serverclients are not concerned with data storage, which remains internal to each server
Servers are not concerned with the user interface or user state, so that servers can be simpler and more scalable.
Statelessno client context stored on the server between requests
session state is held in the client.
Cacheableclients can cache responses. Well-managed caching partially or completely eliminates some client–server interactions, further improving scalability and performance.
A client cannot ordinarily tell whether it is connected directly to the end server, or to an intermediary along the way.
uniform interface between clients and servers Interactive Secure Multi-Party Computation machine-reproducible,
but not machine-designable or usable